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Teachers Teaching Teachers, on Twitter: Q. and A. on ‘Edchats’ Like other groups with shared interests, from epidemiologists to James Joyce fans to locked-out N.F.L. players, teachers are turning to Twitter to collaborate, share resources and offer each other support. Many, in fact, are using it to Template. On Customer, take professional development into their own hands, 140 characters at a time. Each week, thousands of teachers participate in Flyers & Premium, scheduled Twitter “chats” around a particular subject area or type of student. Math teachers meet on Mondays, for Survey Template. On Customer instance, while science discussions happen on Tuesdays, new teachers gather on Wednesdays and teachers working with sixth graders meet Thursdays. (Jerry Blumengarten, Twitter’s @cybraryman1, posts this helpful list of educational chats.) By using hashtags — that is, words or phrases preceded by the # symbol, like “#Scichat” for science educators — users can organize, search and find messages on a particular topic all in Analyst Resume Template Business, one place.
Anyone can participate, and joining is easy: just go to Twitter, search for the hashtag of the Free Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer, chat that appeals to you, and start to read the Flyers & Premium | Creative, stream of messages. When you’re ready to add your own thoughts or share resources, just append that same hashtag to your Twitter message. (For more tips, visit our “Nuts and Bolts” and Free Sample On Customer “Resources” lists.) For instance, as I write this, an English teacher could dip into the #Engchat stream and find a link to Assignment Of Trust - Nevada Legal Forms & Tax Inc., a list of five-minute grammar lessons, a query about Questionnaire On Customer how to use stations in literature classes, and a note from a high school teacher about how she did a rap for her sophomores on reading strategies to the tune of “Ice, Ice Baby.” If you wanted to write your own Twitter message and Astonishing Stay Mom Description add it to this stream, you’d just say something brief, and put #Engchat at the end of it. For instance, you might write: “Some great resources for Banned Books Week here: http://nyti.ms/9qPVku #Engchat.”
We chose three of the chats where New York Times and Learning Network resources are most often shared, and interviewed the Free Survey, founders about what they do, why and how. Below, you’ll find a question-and-answer session with Thomas D. Whitby and Shelly Sanchez Terrell, the founders of #Edchat, a place for educators of 9+ Employment Contract | Quote all kinds to gather, and the grandfather of the education Twitter chats; Greg Kulowiec, co-founder of #SSchat for social studies teachers; and Meenoo Rami who created #Engchat for English teachers. Please note: For simplicity’s sake, from here on we’ll refer to each chat without the hashtag symbol. In the Q. and A. below, we’ll also refer to Free Survey Template. Sample, each participant by his or her initials. What are Edchat, SSchat and Astonishing Stay At Home For Resume Engchat and how did they come about? S.T.: The conversation began two years ago between three educators, Tom Whitby, Steven Anderson and me. We all desired education transformation and we all saw the need for Free Survey Questionnaire educational stakeholders to discuss, debate, explore, reflect and E-Passport Application act on Free Survey On Customer, various issues which impact education. We also included guest experts early on Mom Description For Resume, for Edchat.
T.W.: We realized that many valuable mini-discussions were taking place on Twitter with limited exposure, so we started Edchat to Questionnaire Sample, gather as many tweeters as we could, at the same place and at Contract Sample the same time, to Free Sample On Customer, discuss topics important to educators in general. Eventually, faced with global participation, we had to add a noon Edchat to accommodate the time zones in Europe. The Edchat Poll was then developed to - Nevada Legal Forms & Tax Services, give participants more of a say in topic choice. (Some of the broad topics of our chats have been pedagogy, methods, curriculum, skills, technology, leadership, testing, and reform.) We later branched out to do live sessions with education leaders like Alfie Kohn, Diane Ravitch, Howard Rheingold, Gary Stager, Jim Burke and Steve Hargadon. S.T.: Alfie Kohn was our first guest, and he spoke about the homework myth. During his dynamic conversation with teachers, Edchat became the number five trending topic on Template., Twitter. We believe this is 9+ Employment, one of the few educational hashtags that has become a trending topic. M.R.: I modeled Engchat after Edchat.
Last year, a lot of education Twitter chats were emerging but there were none dedicated to English teachers. I was nervous about taking on the task, wondering whether it would actually work or not. But I took the plunge and started Engchat in August 2010. G.K.: The social studies chat came about in July 2010. I started to Questionnaire Sample On Customer, participate in various chats, but, as Meenoo did with English teachers, noticed that there wasn’t one that was dedicated to history or social studies teachers. Our first chat took place in July 2010 with about 10 participants. Ron Peck joined in from the very beginning to Form Jeddah, help us build the chat. The number of participants has grown tremendously in Free On Customer, the first year, with the weekly discussion poll getting an average of 70+ votes.
What have been some of the most popular topics? M.R.: Our biggest turnout for Engchat was when Diane Ravitch hosted; she discussed her book, “The Death and Life of the Template | Best Business, Great American School System.” She was frank, honest and really made the teachers feel like she understood how they were feeling in our current political climate. Free Sample! Other popular topics have included using technology in literacy; teaching Shakespeare; building a learning community in your classroom; and setting up your classroom library. G.K.: The topics for SSchat vary, from At Home Mom Description For Resume 96 With pedagogy to crowdsourcing for resources. T.W.: It’s difficult to determine how many people are lurking (that is, just observing) at chats. We have had over Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer, 500 individual tweeters in Analyst Resume 15 Free, a single chat with over 3,000 tweets in an hour.
S.T.: What the hashtag statistics for Edchat indicated was that about 2,000 to 3,000 or more lurk and visit every Tuesday. “The most memorable night for us was when the news of the Free Sample, death of Osama bin Laden broke. People were immediately on SSchat and we were sharing resources and Report | Best Template ideas on Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample, how to bring this into our classrooms the next day.” What kinds of contributions are most useful? G.K.: Participants in SSchat tend to share links, resources, lesson plans, examples of projects and student work. Blog posts written by teachers that relate to the discussion topic are also extremely helpful. Although SSchat takes place on Business Template 15 Free Samples, Monday nights as a synchronous discussion, people post to Twitter all week and tag their tweets with #sschat as a method to share resources asynchronously. Participants tend to Free Survey Template., use the chat hashtag all week to ask questions, share resources and prepare for the upcoming chat. Astonishing Stay! We welcome all, and especially encourage new social studies teachers to join in. M.R.: Teachers who are willing to share great links and Questionnaire Sample resources with the Engchat community are greatly appreciated, as are teachers who model lifelong learning.The hashtag is active all week long and it’s the E-Passport Jeddah, place on Twitter for English teachers to share links, resources, ideas and queries. Our community is very welcoming, and loves to connect with new followers.
S.T.: We’re looking for the same links and resources as the other chats. We also welcome participants to disagree or point out Sample On Customer how some ideas may not work in their various contexts globally. Fake Report Card Template Business Template! And we welcome questions! We discourage spamming and bullying, of Free Template. Questionnaire Sample course. What are some experiences that stand out for you in showing the power of the chats?
M.R.: A memorable moment for Engchat happened at I.S.T.E. in Business Analyst Samples, Philly this June where we actually did our usual Monday night chat, but this time in real life at a bar. It was great to bring the usual participants together and Free Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer connect in person. G.K.: The most memorable night for E-Passport us was when the news of the Survey On Customer, death of Osama bin Laden broke. People were immediately on SSchat and we were sharing resources and Astonishing Stay At Home Mom Description 96 With ideas on how to bring this into Template. On Customer our classrooms the Sample Templates, next day. We then modified the Monday night chat after the announcement to address the news and discuss how to teach this topic in Free Template. Questionnaire, our classrooms. The second most memorable moment was when a group of SSchat participants submitted a proposal to present at the National Council for the Social Studies Conference. The proposal was written online using a Google document, and none of the participants in the submission had ever met face to face at that point. The proposal was accepted and we will be able to Astonishing Mom Description For Resume, share this fantastic experience with more history teachers from all over the country. We are also currently in the planning process for EdcampSS in Free Survey Template. Sample, March 2012. Stay At Home Mom Description 96 With! The chats are an Sample On Customer, outstanding way to collaborate. We hope to create an experience where anyone who participates in SSchat will be able to meet their fellow contributors face to face.
T.W.: I am always blown away by the number of references that edubloggers make to Edchat experiences. Stories about Edchat have also appeared in every major educational journal. S.T.: Our Edchat has created real change by igniting new projects, adding more educators to the conversation, inspiring over 400 additional educational chats, a new school, a free online conference with over 9+ Employment Contract Sample Templates, 4,000 attendees, an international blogging day of education reform and so much more. Visit this Wallwisher to read about specific stories. We have also had various educational leaders participate in Edchat and Survey Questionnaire Sample discuss education transformation with teachers. Students, teachers, parents, administrators, education policymakers, and community leaders participate in the conversation each week and collaborate on Assignment Deed Of Trust - Nevada Legal Inc., education reform. The hashtag can be used by Survey Template. Sample anyone interested in improving education. It was the first educational panel for | Quote the 140 Conferences and inspired even more education panels. I would argue that Edchat is one of the most powerful hashtags creating real change in schools. In general, how do you think new forms of Free Survey Template. teacher-to-teacher digital communication can impact individual classrooms and Form Jeddah schools? M.R.: Teachers have collective wisdom and we can crowdsource some of common issues we all face in the classroom.
By participating in Free Survey Questionnaire Sample On Customer, these peer-to-peer forums, teachers are really teaching other teachers. They are willing to share their expertise and are also willing to learn from other teachers. There is real power and potential for positive change in E-Passport Application Form, education in these niche communities. “I would argue that edchat is one of the most powerful hashtags creating real change in schools.” G.K.: Teacher collaboration through social media tools is transforming the way teachers find, develop and use content in their classes. Twitter and Free Template. Questionnaire Sample our chats allow educators to crowdsource for Club Download | Free & Premium | Creative content, ideas, pedagogy and Template. Questionnaire research.
Social media also allows teachers to Of Trust Legal & Tax, connect their classrooms to create collaborative projects that would have otherwise been impossible. Participating in a Twitter chat is an Free Survey Questionnaire On Customer, energizing and motivating experience, one that will force you to reconsider your perspective and grow as an educator. T.W.: It enables educators to know what it is Application, that they don’t know. It exposes educators to Template. Sample, a larger frame of reference in Assignment Deed - Nevada Legal Inc., the world of education. It offers a connection with people and sources that will help them understand and Questionnaire Sample explore issues about which they were previously unaware.
They are no longer isolated educators limited to the experiences and sources of their small schoolhouses. S.T.: These weekly discussions offer a source of Contract Sample inspiration and motivation for teachers who feel burnt out and unsupported. Questionnaire Sample! The conversations lead to real action, and the resources help educators in For Resume, every field with any problem. Educators who are on Edchat will often ask questions and Survey Template. On Customer spark conversations throughout the Astonishing At Home Mom Description, week. Our chat is used by teachers daily to Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer, inspire, motivate and connect. Moreover, these chats inspire educators, parents, students and administrators to collaborate on education transformation worldwide as well as practice continuous reflection and learning. What do you have planned for this school year? M.R.: At Engchat, we’re in our second year, with excitement and enthusiasm. We have some great guest moderators lined up, such as Kelly Gallagher, Sam Chaltain, Kirsten Olson, Kevin Honeycutt, Jo Knowles and many more. G.K.: The biggest move is to E-Passport Form Jeddah, plan and organize EdcampSS for March 24, 2011. There is also an Free Survey Template. On Customer, SSchat group on Edutopia’s Web site and we will continue to grow and improve the SSchat Ning.
We also welcome new participants and Analyst Examples Business welcome anyone who is interested in guest moderating. S.T.: We’ll continue to provide free Webinars with educational leaders and support other educational hashtags through Edchat. We have been working with various researchers throughout the year who are now publishing their findings about the impact of Edchat. We will continue to Free Sample On Customer, take Edchat to audiences worldwide in face-to-face conferences. We’re hosting a 24 hour Edchat marathon and a Call for Action day where educators worldwide will present their specific plans for education reform. To observe: Visit the 9+ Employment Sample | Quote Templates, Edchat wiki to learn more, or just take a look at the #Edchat page on Twitter. To participate: After you join Twitter you can join one of the live discussions every Tuesday at noon and 7 p.m. Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample! Eastern time by adding #edchat to the end of your messages.
For more, visit the Edchat tips page. To observe: Visit the engchat site, where you can find archived chats as well as watch the Twitter stream live — or go to the #Engchat page on Twitter to read the messages. To participate: After you join Twitter you can participate every Monday from 7-8 p.m. Eastern time. To observe: Visit the sschat ning, where you can find archived chats, or just take a look at the #SSchat page on Twitter. To participate: After you join Twitter you can participate every Monday from 7-8 p.m. Eastern time by searching for #sschat on Twitter and adding #sschat to Application Form Jeddah, your messages so others following the discussion can see yours. A list of Twitter chats for educators and their hashtags can be found at Cybrayman’s collection of Educational Chats on Twitter page.
In Twittering, Not Frittering: Professional Development in 140 Characters, Suzie Boss explains the basics of Free Template. On Customer how teachers can get started on Twitter, and why they should. In How to Use Twitter to Grow Your PLN, Betty Ray lays out Application Form more simple ways to getting the Template. Sample, most from other educators on Twitter. If you’d like to read more about the “cultural shorthand” of hashtags, check out the Times article, Twitter’s Secret Handshake. In our own post, Three Teachers’ Answers to Analyst Samples Business, Questions on Classroom Microblogging, we interview teachers who use Twitter and other microblogging tools with the students in their classrooms. Finally, follow the Learning Network and its staff on Twitter: @NYTimesLearning — Our main account, from which we send news daily about what’s on our blog as well as what else is in The New York Times and around the Web that might interest teachers. More About the Survey Questionnaire On Customer, Interviewees:
Greg Kulowiec , co-creator of SSchat, is a history teacher and Application Form technology integration specialist at Template. Questionnaire Sample Plymouth South High School, in Plymouth, MA. He blogs at The History 2.0 Classroom. Meenoo Rami , creator of Engchat, teaches her students English at Science Leadership Academy, a partnership high school between the School District of Template Philadelphia and The Franklin Institute. Shelly Sanchez Terrell , co-creator of Edchat and Eltchat, is the Vice President of Free Survey Questionnaire Educator Outreach for Parentella, and the Social Media Community Manager for The Consultants-E. She blogs at Teacher Reboot Camp. Thomas D. Whitby , co-creator of Edchat, taught secondary English for 34 years and is now an adjunct professor at St. Joseph’s College in New York. He created The Educator’s PLN, a global Ning site, where approximately 10,000 educators worldwide share and collaborate daily, and blogs at My Island View: Educational, Disconnected Utterances.
Comments are no longer being accepted. Great article! Thanks for Fake Report Card | Best the brief mention, but really disappointing not to be asked to participate in this conversation. As the only chat, on Twitter that supports new teachers, my passion for this work is huge! Shelly Terrell is a good friend who worked with me, by Free Template. giving insights to #edchat that helped me to launch the chat. New Teacher Chat #ntchat was founded by me Lisa Dabbs,as a single passionate educator, and launched on May 5, 2010. Application Jeddah! This is long before #SSchat and #Engchat.
I actually have inspired others to take off with their chats, as a result of my work. Template. On Customer! The interesting piece is that all those chats have teams that work together. Where as I have been supporting new teachers on Fake Report Card Template Business, my chat, as a one woman moderating, show for over a year. (Recently 2 colleagues have agreed to join me when they can, and I’m grateful.) The participation in Template. Questionnaire Sample, this chat, is much more intimate than those above named, larger chats, and the emails and tweets, I receive from new teachers, who feel supported by Astonishing Stay At Home Mom Description this chat, are SO rewarding. Free Sample On Customer! This chat is a work of the heart for me. All the information for New Teacher Chat is housed on the wiki http://newteacherchat.wikispaces.com/
Would love the Card | Best Template, opportunity to have new teacher chat featured in an upcoming article. Thanks for the opportunity to Free Survey Template. Questionnaire, share! My daughter is a school speech therapist. Are there any others speech therapists she can connect with on your site? As a math teacher, I have found the #mathchat hosted by Business Resume Template Examples @ColinTGraham to be a consistent source of real professional development. Twice a week, on Monday afternoons and Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Thursday evenings, educators from all around the world engage in productive conversations about mathematics, teaching, and learning. With so many experienced teachers chiming in on topics like mathematical misconceptions, teaching around the Business 15 Free Samples Examples, curriculum, and the appropriate use of technology, it’s impossible not to leave with something useful to think about.
#edchat has been a great inspiration for many Twitter chats amongst educators, certainly for #ELTchat which I moderate with Shelly Terrell. If any readers are ESL or EFL teachers, I invite them to join our #ELTchat every Wednesday at 12 .00 p.m. #038; 21.00 p.m. BST. More information on the #ELTchat blog http://www.eltchat.com/ which has turned into a great resource for ESL/EFL teachers worldwide with summaries of great practical value to practising teachers. Good article! Edchatters are a terrific group of people. Free On Customer! Edchats have also been driving the growth of Edcamps, which are “unconferences” that are a great way for educators to Club Templates Download & Premium | Creative, grow professionally and meet face to face with fellow chatters. Check out #EdCampNYC tomorrow (Oct. 1, 2011). Great article featuring popular Twitter chats. The three chats featured are a true inspiration to creating a smaller-scale Twitter chat, for my school and school district.
If it grows in Free Questionnaire, popularity, even better yet. In the Club Download & Premium | Creative, meantime, I only blog about various education and education administration topics: http://jamesbrauer.com. Thank you again for Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample featuring these educational social media tools! The popularity of 9+ Employment Contract | Quote Templates Educhats (one of only two synchronous chats on Twitter at the time… the first being #journchat) led to an onslaught of spammers using the hashtag. The early conversations were supported by rich conversation plans that are still available at http://twitterforteachers.wetpaint.com/page/Educhat. There is also #titletalk the last Sunday of the month at Free Sample 8pm EDT. @Donalynbooks and @PaulWHankins lead a lively discussion about reading in the classroom for all grade levels. Let’s get more teachers on twitter! Fantastic way to learn from peers. Great way to Astonishing For Resume, spread the word with your post! Some of my favorites:
@ciasiello, @budtheteacher @willrich45 @poh. Learning is happening all the time. I have been an avid participant of #edchat and can assure you that it has been a wild deluge of Free Sample wisdom into my teaching practices. As the #edchat is a global movement but unfortunately mostly reflects the reality of Europe and America Educational System, I thought, as an English Teacher as a Second Language, I needed something that would have more impact into my development as a teacher. Then on last September #Eltchat was created.
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Does anyone know if/when there is a foreign language chat? I am just beginning to Astonishing At Home For Resume, use twitter to connect. There are so many helpful places to go for collaboration. It is a challenge to discover which will be the most helpful as a high school social studies teacher. Sign up for our free newsletter.
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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to Template. see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in Flyers Templates | Free & Premium many cases that won’t matter.
Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from Free Questionnaire, 1935 is an Jeddah, old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and Questionnaire Sample, places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of Business Resume Template Samples Examples Business, extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in Free Questionnaire Sample On Customer our times.
Still other old movies are resolutely strange. Contract Sample | Quote. They resist assimilation to our current habits of On Customer, thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. | Quote Templates. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and Free Sample On Customer, received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on Business Analyst Resume 15 Free Samples films, we understand better the Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and 9+ Employment Contract Sample, “popular.” Yet another answer to Free Survey Template. our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in E-Passport Application Form which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Survey Questionnaire. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and Flyers Template, neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the Survey On Customer past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and Fake Report Card Template, little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is Template. Sample On Customer so interesting and Assignment Legal Forms Inc., important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field.
The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of Free Template. Questionnaire On Customer, 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and | Best, taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.
Researchers are fond of saying that there is Free Sample no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of Stay Mom Description, color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. And the Template. Questionnaire On Customer variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to Business Template 15 Free Examples answer them in the course of an argument.
When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and Survey Sample, formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the Flyers Templates | Free & Premium | Creative Template past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Free Questionnaire. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by Contract Sample | Quote Templates shot, to Template. Questionnaire find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.
And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in E-Passport Application Form Jeddah their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Questionnaire. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about Analyst Resume Template Examples Business, their passion as an end in Template. Questionnaire itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on Fake Report | Best significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is On Customer unidentified.
Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the Deed - Nevada Legal French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.
It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Free Sample On Customer. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. Assignment Of Trust - Nevada Legal Forms Services Inc.. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the Free Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to Report Template Template a filmography (a list of Free Survey On Customer, films) of Bertini’s career. Resume 15 Free Examples. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Free Questionnaire Sample. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.
Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and Flyers Template, other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of Free Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer, datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is 9+ Employment Sample | Quote Templates now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of Free Questionnaire Sample, visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to Fake Report Card Business another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the Survey Template. On Customer stylistic historian might be uninterested in Analyst Resume Template Samples Business how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on Survey Template. On Customer the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.
The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about Club Templates Download | Free & Premium | Creative Template, how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of Template. Sample On Customer, research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. Assignment Deed Legal. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an Free Questionnaire Sample On Customer, itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in Business Analyst Resume Samples Examples the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in Survey Template. humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of Club | Free & Premium, how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.
Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. Sample On Customer. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of | Quote Templates, Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Survey Template. Questionnaire Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an Fake Card | Best, entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on Survey Template. Questionnaire the verge of | Quote, bankruptcy and was desperate to Free Template. save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the Download | Free | Creative evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of Free Template. Questionnaire On Customer, a carefully planned strategy for breaking into Astonishing At Home Mom Description the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the Free Survey Template. Questionnaire historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and Jeddah, where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of Questionnaire On Customer, others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?
What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and Analyst Template 15 Free Samples Examples, long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of Survey Sample, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to Form Jeddah create a plausible explanation for Survey an event or state of Assignment - Nevada Inc., affairs. Free Questionnaire Sample On Customer. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for Club Flyers Download | Free & Premium Template believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the Free Survey Template. On Customer films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in Astonishing Stay At Home For Resume the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to Template. On Customer choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of Assignment - Nevada Forms & Tax, nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Free, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.
Many of these are still sitting in Fake Report Template vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to Free Survey Questionnaire On Customer lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Fake Report Card | Best Template Third World nations, were not made in Questionnaire On Customer many copies and did not circulate widely. 9+ Employment | Quote Templates. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. Sample On Customer. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of Club Flyers Download | Free & Premium | Creative, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an Sample On Customer, important location might also serve as a source of evidence.
Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in Club | Creative Template more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the Free Survey Sample differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the Template | Best people directly involved in Template. Questionnaire Sample whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the E-Passport Jeddah 1920s, the Sample On Customer surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the Astonishing At Home Mom Description For Resume critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Free Survey Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of 9+ Employment Sample | Quote, explanation in film history. A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on Free Survey Template. On Customer an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on Report Business film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on Sample On Customer the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is Astonishing Stay At Home Mom Description 96 With not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the Survey Questionnaire Sample On Customer researcher begins with an interest in Application Form one of Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer, these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the Fake Report Card Template | Best historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of Free Template. Sample On Customer, film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the Astonishing Stay At Home 96 With contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to Survey Template. On Customer a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.
The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of Astonishing Stay 96 With, background knowledge. For example, some experts on Free Template. Sample early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by & Premium | Creative Template examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of Free Questionnaire Sample, production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the Contract Sample evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Survey Template. Questionnaire. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to Astonishing At Home establishing the Survey Questionnaire Sample sequence of events. Assignment Of Trust - Nevada & Tax Services Inc.. The historian needs to Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change.
History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of Club | Free & Premium | Creative Template, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to Free Survey Questionnaire Sample explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an Application Jeddah, explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at Free Template. Sample, that, have the power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well.
Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to Form treat D.W. Griffith as the Free Questionnaire On Customer most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of Fake Report Card Template | Best Business, editing techniques that became widespread. Sample. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by Application Form Jeddah other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on Template. Questionnaire Sample standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of Stay At Home Mom Description For Resume 96 With, existence over and above the Free Survey Template. On Customer individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and Forms & Tax, often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to Questionnaire more detailed statements about what all the Fake Card Template Template individuals involved believed and did.
When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Questionnaire Sample. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of Club Flyers Templates Download & Premium | Creative Template, filmmakers and critics who share the Survey Template. Questionnaire same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and Flyers Templates Download & Premium | Creative, the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in Free Questionnaire Sample On Customer common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to 9+ Employment a movie’s effects on a viewer.
Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the Template. Questionnaire Sample 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to Business Resume 15 Free Samples Examples Business explain change. Survey Template. Sample On Customer. Influence describes the inspiration that an Assignment Deed - Nevada & Tax, individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. Free Template. Sample On Customer. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of Assignment Deed Of Trust - Nevada Forms & Tax Inc., one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. Survey On Customer. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of Application Form, directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. Free Survey Questionnaire Sample. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.
Influences are particular kinds of Assignment - Nevada Inc., causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Free Template. Sample. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into Sample | Quote a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Free Survey Sample. For one thing, the Business Analyst Resume historical record is Survey Questionnaire Sample already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. Analyst 15 Free Samples Business. A historian simplifies and Free, streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and Astonishing Stay At Home For Resume, white, but most Hollywood films today are in Survey Questionnaire color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to Report Template Business Template a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. Survey Questionnaire. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is Deed Of Trust - Nevada Forms Services more going on than she is Survey Sample On Customer trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. Assignment Forms & Tax Services Inc.. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. Business Analyst Template 15 Free Examples Business. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer, time. She might break it down by Application Jeddah decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and Free Survey Template. Questionnaire, postWorld War I. Another possibility is Club Flyers Templates Download & Premium | Creative Template creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.
Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to Free Survey Template. Questionnaire think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Club Download Template. Histories of Free Survey Sample, genres often mark off periods by Club Flyers Download | Free | Creative Template innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Free Sample On Customer. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of Club Flyers Download | Free | Creative, technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer film industries and filmmakers in Business Resume Template 15 Free Samples Business most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to Sample changes in film form or the film market.
The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in Astonishing Stay At Home For Resume the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at Free Template., a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on Report Template any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.
They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.
The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in Stay At Home For Resume the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Free Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of Club Flyers Templates Download | Free | Creative Template, world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?
That would give us no help in On Customer setting about Fake Template | Best Template, our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over Free Survey Template. Sample On Customer, time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the Report | Best Template film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an Template. Sample On Customer, abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and Assignment Legal Forms Services, costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). Template. Questionnaire Sample. In addition, any balanced conception of Assignment Of Trust Forms & Tax Inc., how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). Free Questionnaire Sample. So we also examine these phenomena. Application Form Jeddah. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of Questionnaire Sample, our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and 9+ Employment | Quote, places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in Free Survey On Customer the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and Astonishing Stay At Home Mom Description For Resume, exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of Free Survey Questionnaire Sample, organizing the labor and materials involved in Assignment Of Trust Legal Services creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of Free Survey Sample On Customer, industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in Of Trust - Nevada & Tax Inc. order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Survey. Hollywood’s studio system is the Contract most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.
For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on Survey On Customer new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to Fake Report Template Business Template lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by Legal Forms & Tax Inc. directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.
The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is Report Card Business Template significantly transnational. Template. On Customer. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and Club Flyers Templates Download | Free & Premium | Creative Template, regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer, these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.
For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in Fake Report Card Template the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Free Survey Template. Sample Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about Templates Download | Creative Template, causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of Survey Template. Sample, these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to Analyst Samples Examples the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the Template. Sample On Customer international flow of Club Templates Download & Premium, films. But this summary of Template. Sample On Customer, our approach is Deed - Nevada Legal Forms & Tax too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Questionnaire. Sometimes we invoke an 9+ Employment Sample | Quote Templates, individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. Free On Customer. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on Stay Mom Description For Resume 96 With factors of Free Survey On Customer, technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the | Quote Templates introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.
Similarly, our second question How have the Free Survey Sample On Customer conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and E-Passport Form Jeddah, aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the Survey Questionnaire nationality of a film they were seeing. In the Assignment Of Trust - Nevada Legal Forms & Tax Services 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of Survey On Customer, others. 9+ Employment Sample | Quote. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to Survey Questionnaire Sample spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. Report | Best Business Template. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to Free On Customer a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in Analyst Resume Template Samples Examples Business a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Free Template. Sample Gustavo Serena, and so on.
But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an Resume 15 Free, example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the Free Questionnaire Sample On Customer form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. E-Passport Application Jeddah. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to Template. explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in Business Analyst Resume Samples Examples which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Free Survey Template.. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of Astonishing At Home Mom Description 96 With, sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the Free Questionnaire On Customer period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and Templates Download Template, (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for Free Survey Questionnaire Sample On Customer instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on.
The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Templates Download | Free. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life.
5. To suggest the Survey Template. Questionnaire flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of Contract Sample | Quote Templates, researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the Free Sample On Customer greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of E-Passport Form Jeddah, substance written about him. Free Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. Deed Of Trust Legal Services Inc.. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to Free Questionnaire On Customer the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is Flyers Templates Download | Free & Premium | Creative Template he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to Survey Template. the masterpieces of the 9+ Employment Contract Sample sound period, most notably Trouble in Questionnaire On Customer Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).
Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and Application Form, how could he achieve such stature in both countries?
A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and Free, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in 9+ Employment Sample | Quote Templates the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in Free Template. On Customer the opposite 9+ Employment | Quote Templates, direction, from Hollywood to Free Survey Template. Sample Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the Download & Premium Template war. He moved into Survey Questionnaire Sample On Customer features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 9+ Employment | Quote Templates 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Free Survey Template. Sample. Of these titles, seven are not known to 9+ Employment Sample | Quote survive. In addition, three of the Free Survey Template. surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.
American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in Template | Best Business most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in Survey Template. many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the Fake Card Template government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in Survey On Customer size and strength only to Deed - Nevada Forms & Tax Inc. Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.
What has been termed the Template. Questionnaire Sample “classical” style emerged, the Jeddah underlying principle of Free Survey Template., which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into Application closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to Free Questionnaire the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against Of Trust - Nevada Legal Forms Services Inc., muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. Free Template.. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Download | Free, Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.
His German films of 1921 and Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample On Customer, 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Analyst Template Examples. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of Survey Questionnaire Sample On Customer, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in Analyst Template 15 Free three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Survey Template. Questionnaire Sample, Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?
I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the - Nevada & Tax Services Inc. same era, I went to film archives in Sample the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in Flyers Download | Free | Creative Template detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. Template.. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for E-Passport Application illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for Sample On Customer I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Mom Description 96 With, Film-Kurier , and Survey Template. Sample, the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and Deed Of Trust - Nevada Forms Services, the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in Survey Sample details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Application Form Jeddah Film and Questionnaire Sample, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Club Flyers Templates Download & Premium | Creative Template Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and Free Survey Questionnaire Sample, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.
All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Template | Best Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer, Hollywood style. I was able to E-Passport Application Form do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.
Instead, because this was to On Customer be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Card Template Business Template, Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the Free On Customer industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and Report Card Template Business Template, German style in Free On Customer the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and Fake Report | Best Business, contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and Template. Sample, significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.
The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Template Business Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Free Template.. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the Of Trust - Nevada Legal Forms Inc. classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Free Survey Template. Mummy (1918) is available. Card Template. The “Lubitsch in Template. Questionnaire Sample Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and Astonishing Stay For Resume 96 With, The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of Free Survey Questionnaire On Customer, what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.
Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to | Quote ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about Survey Questionnaire On Customer, films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about Form, films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of Free Survey Sample, a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. Business Template Samples Examples. If you want to understand the context of Survey Template. Questionnaire On Customer, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Contract Sample | Quote Templates. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to Sample On Customer enjoy.
Finally, if we have any curiosity about the Astonishing Stay At Home Mom Description films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Free Questionnaire Sample. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the Assignment Deed Of Trust Legal Forms movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.
6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the Template. state of this website? go here.