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LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS | Kazakhstan Suspends Activity of Witnesses’ National Headquarters. You need to be a member in order to leave a comment. Sign up for 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Tips a new account in our community. It's easy! Already have an account? Sign in here. . . , . Jehovah's Witnesses in Wedding Invitations the capital of Almaty are now able to resume their activity after having won an appeal in Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips the local court. The center in the spotlight continues to legally conduct administration and coordinate the.
Hello guest! Please register or sign in (it's free) to view the hidden content. Sunni Muslim Nariman Seytzhanov was given five years' jail for 8 Best Resume | Resume Templates, inciting religious hatred by On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, talking about schools of Islam to Kazakh pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. Satymzhan Azatov's trial on similar charges continues in Astana on 21 June. Internet Service Provider Brochure - Word & Publisher. Five years' suspended sentence handed down in Almaty. The third of four Sunni Muslims who had studied their faith together at 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, Medina Islamic University before returning to Kazakhstan has been sentenced. A court in Kokshetau in Wedding | Badbrya.com Akmola Region sentenced Nariman Seytzhanov on 9 June to five years' imprisonment for allegedly inciting religious hatred in Resume Resume Tips talks he gave on Islam to Bizdoska.com - Page, pilgrims to Saudi Arabia. He denied the accusations.A court in Kazakhstan's commercial capital Almaty sentenced another of the former Saudi students, Denis Korzhavin, on 11 May to five years' restricted freedom after he admitted his guilt.
Like the others, he was punished for allegedly inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174 (see below).The trial of the fourth, Satymzhan Azatov, on charges of inciting religious hatred is due to resume in the capital Astana on the morning of 21 June (see below).The first of the Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, four to be sentenced was Kuanysh Bashpayev. Provider & Publisher. He was sentenced under Criminal Code Article 174 to Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips, four and a half years' imprisonment on 7 April at the end of Service Provider Brochure - Word, a closed trial in Pavlodar (see F18News 11 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2272). Bashpayev does not appear to have appealed against Images | Resume Tips, his sentence.A court in School Counselor Position: School the southern Kyzylorda Region handed Salafi Muslim Kasimkhan Mukhanbetaskar a suspended sentence of two years and ten months for posting Islamic material on social media which prosecutors claimed incited religious hatred. The court, prosecutors and 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Resume Tips investigators have refused to 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume, tell Forum 18 what the material was, so it is Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume impossible to determine either whether freedom of religion or belief has been violated, or if the accused advocated the destruction of others' human rights (see below).Jehovah's Witness prisoner of conscience and cancer sufferer Teymur Akhmedov has lodged his appeal to Astana City Court against his five-year prison term (see below).A court in Oral (Uralsk) has extended the pre-trial detention of former Saudi-based Imam Abdukhalil Abduzhabbarov as he awaits trial on charges of inciting religious hatred under Article 174 (see below).Atheist writer Aleksandr Kharlamov – under investigation in East Kazakhstan Region under Criminal Code Article 174 - has dismissed an expert analysis which claimed to find incitement to religious hatred in 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume his writings. He has appealed to the Prosecutor for a new analysis (see below).Police in Oral have told a Jehovah's Witnesses that charges against him of inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174 have been dropped. He will be prosecuted under the Administrative Code (see below).Seventh-day Adventist prisoner of conscience Yklas Kabduakasov, imprisoned under Criminal Code Article 174, is 8 Best Templates, Tips due for release at the beginning of October. He has been encouraged in prison in Pavlodar by many letters he has received from fellow-Christians around the world (see below).More prisoners of conscience punished for exercising freedom of religion or belief have had their bank accounts frozen after being added to the financial blacklist (see below).Kokshetau: Seytzhanov's five year prison termAnother Sunni Muslim who studied his faith in Saudi Arabia has been imprisoned, this time in Akmola Region.
On 9 June Judge Ilyas Kakim at Chalkboard Invitations, Kokshetau City Court found 28-year-old Nariman Seytzhanov guilty under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). The Judge handed him a five-year prison term in an ordinary regime labour camp, the term the prosecutor had been demanding. He denied the charges.Seytzhanov was also ordered to pay a fee of 91,693.58 Tenge, according to the verdict seen by 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates,, Forum 18. This is to cover the cost of expert analyses, completed on 13 January and 14 March, of his three recorded lectures.Seytzhanov intends to appeal to Akmola Regional Court, a friend told Forum 18 on 15 June.Seytzhanov's closed trial began on 25 April. The verdict was handed down at a closed session and no other parties were allowed into the courtroom to hear it being read, one of Seytzhanov's friends told Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service the same day.Seytzhanov – who had studied his faith in Saudi Arabia – worked in a travel agency in Astana. He led a group of pilgrims on the umra pilgrimage to Mecca in October 2016. He was arrested by Kyrgyzstan's National Security Committee (NSC) secret police in January 2017. They handed him over to Service Provider Brochure - Word & Publisher, Kazakhstan's National Security Committee (KNB) secret police.Seytzhanov was formally arrested in Kazakhstan on 15 January. He has been held since his arrest in Kokshetau's Interior Ministry Investigation Prison No. 20 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Prosecutors accused Seytzhanov of 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume, inciting religious hatred by speaking negatively of mashabs [schools of Islamic thought] on the basis of talks he gave while leading pilgrims on the umra pilgrimage to Saudi Arabia in Bizdoska.com Template, October 2016. Three audio-recordings were placed on the internet.
Prosecutors alleged he had recorded them and made them public.However, Seytzhanov's lawyer Bakhyt Suleimenova denied this to Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service. She said he did not know who had made the recordings or uploaded them to 8 Best Resume Images Templates, Tips, the internet. Bizdoska.com 90: Word Template, Sponsorship. Nothing in 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, these talks was against the law, Suleimanova told Radio Free Europe.He simply explained to people how to conduct the haj or umra pilgrimage, and explained in general the fundamentals of the religion so that all we Muslims and all people would be in unity, his friend told Radio Free Europe, so that there would be no schisms, as in Internet Provider Brochure Template - Word Syria or Ukraine where murders take place, that the people would not be divided. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates,. Seytzhanov also called on | Badbrya.com, his listeners to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, respect the President so that no one would go against Memorandum Sponsorship, the government and obey imams.The Judge ordered the | Resume Tips, hearings closed allegedly to protect the identity of two witnesses who feared for their safety.Suleimanova questioned why the Internet - Word & Publisher, hearings needed to be closed. According to the Criminal Procedure Code, this is for when there are sexual crimes, such as rapes.Only Nariman's wife was able to attend the trial, a friend of Seytzhanov told Forum 18 on 15 June. None of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips, his other friends or relatives were allowed into the court building.Almaty: Korzhavin's five years' restricted freedomAn Almaty-based Sunni Muslim received a suspended sentence after admitting his mistake. Internet Provider Template - Word. At a one-day trial on 11 May, Judge Nariman Begaliyev of the city's Almaly District Court found Denis Korzhavin guilty under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). The Judge handed him a five-year term of restricted freedom.Korzhavin was punished for lectures in Russian based on the Arabic-language Muslim book The Three Fundamental Principles. 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume. This was banned in Kazakhstan in 2014. Recordings of the Chalkboard, lectures were posted on the internet. Images On Pinterest Tips. Experts appointed by the prosecution claim to 8 Best Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, have found incitement to hatred in Korzhavin's lectures.In February 2014, Astana's Saryarka District Court found a book at least partly written by Salafi Muslim Mohammed ibn Abdul-Wahhab extremist.
The book - a Russian translation of the work Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam – is 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume 543 pages and was published in Cairo in 2008. Mohammed ibn Abdul-Wahhab helped found a precursor to the present-day kingdom of Saudi Arabia (see F18News 10 October 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2005).The comparatively mild sentence followed Korzhavin's admission of guilt in 90: Word Template, court and an agreement before the 8 Best | Resume Templates,, trial between Police Investigator Aleksei Chapurin and Dauren Sagindykov of the Service Provider Brochure Template & Publisher, Prosecutor's Office on one side and 8 Best Images | Resume Templates, Tips Korzhavin and Job Description: School Counselor Counselor his lawyer Ruslan Dzhaniyev on the other.As part of the agreement, Korzhavin pledged to call publicly for peace and unity between religions and to ask people not to circulate copies of his lectures. He recorded such a video-message which was posted on the internet.Under the sentence, Korzhavin will need permission to leave Almaty or change his place of 8 Best On Pinterest Templates,, residence and will have to undergo educational work organised by the probation service, Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service noted on Star Chart Print, 11 May.Korzhavin, who is now 34 and married with four children, was freed in the courtroom. He had been held since his 18 February arrest in Almaty's Investigation Prison. Both he and his lawyer told Radio Free Europe that he would not be appealing against the sentence.Korzhavin – an ethnic Russian who converted to Islam - had studied his faith at Medina Islamic University in Saudi Arabia.
He returned to Kazakhstan in 2011 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Astana: Azatov's trial continuesThe trial in Astana of another of the former students from 8 Best Templates,, Medina Islamic University, 27-year-old Satymzhan Azatov, is due to continue at 11 am on 21 June, according to court records. His trial began under Judge Bolat Pazylov at Astana's Saryarka Court No. 2 on 29 May.At the most recent hearing on 13 June, Azatov renounced his state-appointed lawyer. Instead he chose Baurzhan Azanov and Aiman Umirova to Chart Northern Print 1940s Constellations, represent him.The trial is 8 Best Resume Images Resume open, but it is taking place in a small courtroom that can accommodate only 15 spectators, a friend of Azatov told Forum 18 on Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Sponsorship, 14 June. | Resume. Officials allow in some of his friends and relatives, then claim that the courtroom is full. Astana KNB opened a case against Azatov in late December 2016 under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of Star Map, social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). He had met with other Muslims in Astana without state permission. He was arrested on 4 January 2017 (see F18News 18 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2273).Azatov is accused of inciting religious hatred in his remarks to guests at a meeting in a cafe in Astana in On Pinterest Tips September 2016 (of which the KNB secret police obtained a recording) and at Service Brochure Template, a subsequent meeting in a home in 8 Best Templates, Resume the city.Azatov and Chalkboard Seytzhanov (who was also present at the cafe) were given administrative fines in Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips November 2016 to punish them for the meeting (see F18News 6 February 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2253).The prosecution has again turned to Star Chart Sky Astronomy Print, Roza Akbarova to provide expert analysis, including during the trial. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume. She claimed that he had spoken negatively of Shia Muslims, stating that they had blown up a mosque.Akbarova provided analysis which helped convict Seventh-day Adventist Yklas Kabduakasov (see below) and Jehovah's Witness Teymur Akhmedov (see below).At an 8 June hearing, Azatov called for Judge Pazylov to be removed from the Counselor Position: School Counselor, case, Radio Free Europe's Kazakh Service noted the same day.
Azatov described the trial as a theatre show.Kyzylorda: Muslim sentenced – for what?Because of the secrecy surrounding cases of alleged incitement to religious hatred and the closure of many of the trials, many cases remain unknown. Even in cases which are known it can be impossible to establish if an individual has been punished for statements that do not call for Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips harm to Memorandum Template,, the human rights of others.One such is 8 Best Resume On Pinterest that of Salafi Muslim Kasimkhan Nabiuly Mukhanbetaskar (born 19 April 1992) in the southern Kyzylorda Region. The Police Anti-Extremism Department found in November 2016 that he had distributed audio-recordings on social media that incited religious hatred, according to a 19 April police statement, issued after he was sentenced. It described him as an adherent of - Page 90: Word Memorandum, a destructive religious tendency.On 15 March 2017 Judge Kumisbai Kusekeyev of Kyzylorda Court No. Resume Images | Resume Templates,. 2 found Mukhanbetaskar guilty of Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Memorandum Template,, violating Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord). 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume. The Judge handed him a suspended sentence of two years and ten months, according to the police statement. He also ordered him to pay fees for expert analyses of Chart Northern Print Map, 233,282 Tenge.Mukhanbetaskar appealed against his sentence.
Judge Sabit Abdikanov of Kyzylorda Regional Court heard his appeal on 30 May, Court officials told Forum 18 on 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, 2 June. They said the Internet Brochure Template, hearing was open, but that in addition to the Judge only Mukhanbetaskar, his lawyer Toktarbek Myrzambetov and the prosecutor were present.However, Court officials refused to say what decision the Judge handed down. Forum 18 was unable to reach Judge Abdikanov the same day. Forum 18 has also been unable to reach lawyer Myrzambetov.Askhat Mukhtarov of the Police Investigation Department led the case against 8 Best Images Templates, Resume, Mukhanbetaskar. However, colleagues said he had been transferred to Service Brochure, Zhalagash District. Officers there told Forum 18 on 2 June that he was ill. Yerkin Sagymbayev, deputy head of the 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, Anti-Extremism Department of the Regional Police refused to answer any of Forum 18's questions on the case, citing the School Position: School Counselor, secrecy of the investigation. Yerlan Zhamalbek of the Prosecutor's Office told Forum 18 that it cannot give information by Resume On Pinterest Resume Tips, telephone.Astana: Jehovah's Witness Akhmedov appealsOn 2 May Astana's Saryarka Court No. 2 sentenced Jehovah's Witness prisoner of Bizdoska.com - Page Sponsorship, conscience Teymur Akhmedov to five years' imprisonment on charges of inciting religious hatred under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 2.Akhmedov was punished for discussing his faith with seven young men who were KNB secret police informers but claimed to be students. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips. He was also banned from conducting ideological/preaching activity in Chalkboard Invitations the area of Resume On Pinterest Resume, religion for three years after the end of his sentence (see F18News 3 May 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2277).Akhmedov, who is now 61, has been in prison since his 18 January arrest. Resume On Pinterest Resume. Asaf Guliyev, arrested with him on the same charges, was sentenced to five years' restricted freedom on 24 February (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Akhmedov's appeal against his sentence reached Astana City Court on 31 May, according to court records.
No date has yet been set for a hearing.Oral: Abduzhabbarov's further month in pre-trial detentionIn early June Oral (Uralsk) City Court extended the 8 Best Images | Resume, pre-trial detention of Sunni Muslim Imam Abdukhalil Abduzhabbarov for a further month, until 18 July, Saule Kaisarova, head of the Court chancellery, told Forum 18 from Job Description: Counselor School, Oral on 14 June.The KNB secret police arrested 41-year-old Imam Abduzhabbarov, extradited from Saudi Arabia at Kazakhstan's request, as he arrived at Almaty Airport on 18 February. Resume Resume Tips. He was then transferred to Oral in West Kazakhstan Region (see F18News 21 February 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2259).A KNB secret police Investigator is Resume Images Tips investigating Abduzhabbarov under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1 (Incitement of social, national, clan, racial, or religious hatred or discord) and Criminal Code Article 256, Part 2.Article 256, Part 2 punishes: Propaganda of terrorism or public calls to commit terrorism - which includes the production, storage for distribution or distribution of [unspecified in the Article] specified materials - committed by an individual using a state or non-state official position, or with the use of the mass media or other communication networks, or with foreign support, or in 8 Best Images Templates, a group. The punishment is Service Brochure Template - Word seven to 12 years' imprisonment with confiscation of property.Ridder: Atheist writer Kharlamov appeals to ProsecutorOn 13 June, atheist writer and blogger Aleksandr Kharlamov wrote to the Prosecutor of 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, East Kazakhstan Region where he lives, Bagban Taimbetov, asking for Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com a new expert analysis. Resume Images Templates, Tips. He complains that ignorant or unscrupulous experts of the Regional Judicial Expert Analysis Institute had claimed to find incitement of religious hatred in - Page Memorandum Sponsorship his writings on religion.However, I live in a secular state and 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips am not obliged to have a positive attitude to Template, religions and speak positively about religions and religious people, all the more about religious people committing crimes against humanity and against the truth, he told Prosecutor Taimbetov in Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips his letter seen by Counselor Position: Counselor, Forum 18.Kharlamov complained that the experts had illegally distorted the essence of my publications. He stressed that as a human rights defender he calls on everyone to respect the human rights of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume, religious people of any religious confession.Police opened the second case against Kharlamov in Service - Word autumn 2016 under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1. He has not been arrested but remains under travel restrictions in his home town of 8 Best Images Resume Tips, Ridder. The first criminal case against him on similar charges, opened in January 2013, has possibly been suspended but never closed (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Oral: Jehovah's Witness investigated but to be punished administrativelyPolice in Oral told a local Jehovah's Witness on 12 April he was being investigated under Criminal Code Article 174, Jehovah's Witnesses told Forum 18. The criminal case was launched after the Fake Report Card Template Business Template, man gave an On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, interested person a copy of the Jehovah's Witness publication What Does the Bible Really Teach?Police claimed the book is Job Description: Counselor Position: School Counselor extremist as it has been banned in neighbouring Russia. No Jehovah's Witness publications are known to 8 Best Templates,, have been banned as extremist in Kazakhstan, although KNB secret police-appointed experts claim 16 of 90 Jehovah's Witness publications seized from Akhmedov in Astana at the time of his January arrest (see above) contain extremist passages.Police in Oral also questioned four other Jehovah's Witnesses in Chalkboard Invitations | Badbrya.com connection with the criminal case.
They ordered an Resume Images Templates, Resume, expert analysis of What Does the Bible Really Teach?Police later dropped the Report Card Template | Best Business, criminal case and 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest the Jehovah's Witness is now being investigated under the Administrative Code.Criminal investigations under Article 174 are known to School, have been launched against Muslims, Council of Churches Baptists and commercial booksellers which were subsequently dropped. In all the known cases, individuals are then punished under the Administrative Code (see F18News 7 March 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2262).Pavlodar: Kabduakasov in prison encouraged by lettersSeventh-day Adventist prisoner of conscience Yklas Kabduakasov – who failed in 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips his attempts to seek early release – is due to complete his labour-camp sentence in early October, his pastor Andrei Teteryuk said. Attempts were made to provoke incidents to use against him, but thank God they came to nothing, he told Forum 18 from Astana on 15 June.Kabduakasov was in December 2015 sentenced to two years in a labour camp under Criminal Code Article 174, Part 1. He was punished for discussing his faith with students recruited by the KNB secret police in a KNB-rented flat (see F18News 29 December 2015 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2136).Kabduakasov is serving his two-year prison sentence in Service Provider Template - Word a labour camp in the northern city of Pavlodar. Yklas gains strong moral encouragement from letters from around the 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Tips, world which Christians are sending him every day! Pastor Teteryuk added. It is also a powerful testimony for the labour-camp administration.More prisoners of conscience on financial blacklistSeven Sunni Muslim men sentenced in Sairam in South Kazakhstan Region have been added to the Finance Ministry Financial Monitoring Committee List of individuals connected with the School Counselor Position:, financing of terrorism or extremism.All known prisoners of 8 Best On Pinterest Resume, conscience convicted under Criminal Code Article 174 and Fake Report Card | Best Business Article 405 (involvement in the activity of a banned organisation) have been added to this List, thus freezing any bank accounts they may have, without any additional due legal process. As individuals are not told when they are added to the List, they normally only find out Images Templates, Tips they have been added when they or relatives attempt to withdraw money from Chalkboard, their bank (see F18News 10 June 2016 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2187).The seven Muslims added to the financial blacklist on 19 May were Bakhytzhan Baimusayev, Abduvakhab Shakirov, Furkhat Abatayev, Abdivasit Abdirazakov, Murodzhon Abdullayev, Zhenisbek Manbetov and 8 Best Images Templates, Meirambek Sarymsak.All seven were convicted for Chalkboard Wedding alleged membership of the Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume, Muslim missionary movement Tabligh Jamaat, which the Kazakh authorities banned in 2013. They were sentenced on 4 April under Criminal Code Article 405. All were given prison terms of between one and four years, plus a ban on unspecified activity once the 8 Best Templates, Tips, prison terms are over (see F18News 3 May 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2277).Five Sunni Muslim former prisoners of 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume, conscience, all imprisoned under Criminal Code Article 405 to punish them for alleged membership of the Muslim missionary movement Tabligh Jamaat, have been removed from the financial blacklist: Rashid Erimbetov on 18 April; Ruslan Abirov on 28 April; Erbol Sharipov on Print 1940s Constellations Map, 15 May; and Serik Seitzhaparov and Adi Bakyt on 2 June.Erimbetov, Abirov and Sharipov were among four Muslim men each sentenced in the southern Zhambyl Region in 8 Best Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips December 2015 to one year's restricted freedom. Seitzhaparov was sentenced in Akmola Region in February 2016 to two years' restricted freedom.
Bakyt was sentenced in April 2015 in Aktobe Region to Star Chart Sky Astronomy Print Constellations, two years' restricted freedom (see F18News http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2223). (END) An anti-extremism raid on a Kokshetau shop captured a Koran and other Muslim books. The seller was fined for selling religious materials without state permission. She will have to appeal if she wants to regain the books. Icon and book sellers are often fined.
In an 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume, Anti-Extremism Police raid on a shop in Service Provider Brochure Template & Publisher Kokshetau in Images On Pinterest Resume Kazakhstan's northern Akmola Region, officials seized an Card Template Business, Arabic-language Koran and Muslim books in Kazakh and Russian on 8 Best Images Resume Tips, how to pray the namaz. Internet Provider Brochure & Publisher. The woman who had the books on sale was fined in On Pinterest Resume early May, not for extremism-related activity but for selling Muslim literature without the state licence required to sell any religious literature and School Counselor School materials. She has to appeal if she wants the books returned, officials told Forum 18.A case against a Baptist in the nearby town of Stepnogorsk for offering Christian literature to others without state permission was dismissed because it had been lodged too late. Another Baptist is challenging the Judge due to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates,, hear his case (see below).In other cases in North Kazakhstan, West Kazakhstan and Kyzylorda Regions, individuals have been fined for offering or selling religious literature on the streets. Job Description: Counselor Position: Counselor. In Karaganda Region two Jehovah's Witnesses were punished for missionary activity for talking to Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, others about their faith with the use of literature. Two young Muslims were punished in Karaganda Region for sending Muslim texts on the Telegram messaging app. Position: School. In Atyrau a court fined a woman for offering for sale nine Christian icons, while the same court fined a Muslim for teaching his faith with Muslim texts (see below).Officials often claim that those distributing or selling religious literature which has not undergone compulsory state religious censorship or in a place not approved to sell religious literature are guilty of spreading extremism. On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume. Those who distribute non-approved Islamic texts are also often accused of distributing literature of non-traditional Islam.The government allows only Fake Report Card | Best, one Muslim organisation to function, the Resume | Resume Resume Tips, state-backed Muslim Board, which is Wedding Invitations | Badbrya.com Hanafi Sunni. It bans all other forms of Islam, although this ban is 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume not prescribed in any law (see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1939).Restrictions on who can sell religious literature and School Position: Counselor where has stopped online retailers from offering religious books, though confusion abounds as to what constitutes religious literature (see below).Reached on 22 May, acting head of the Religious Affairs Committee Bakhytzhan Kulekeyev declined to discuss the state-imposed religious censorship – or anything else – with Forum 18.In addition to 8 Best Templates, Resume, seizing religious books, icons and other items being sold or distributed without state permission, officials often seek the banning of religious books and webpages as extremist. State-appointed experts ruled that statements by German Lutheran Pastor and Internet Service Provider Brochure Template Nazi-era political prisoner Martin Niemoller – published 70 years ago – are extremist.
Prosecutors may lodge a banning suit to court (see forthcoming F18News article).Tight state censorshipAll religious literature is under tight state censorship. Only books and other items approved by the Religious Affairs Committee, which is part of the Religion and 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Civil Society Ministry in the capital Astana, are allowed to Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, be sold, distributed, printed or imported. In addition, only registered religious organisations (on their own premises) and book sellers with a state licence are allowed to 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips, sell or distribute religious literature (see Forum 18's Kazakhstan religious freedom survey http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1939).Anti-extremism legal changes which came into force in January restricted imports of Fake Report Card | Best Business Template, religious literature for personal use to one copy of 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Tips, any one book (see F18News 5 January 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2243).Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 of the Administrative Code punishes: Violating the Wedding | Badbrya.com, requirements of the Religion Law for .. import, manufacturing, production, publication and/or distribution of religious literature and other religious materials, and items for religious use. The punishment for individuals is a fine of 50 Monthly Financial Indicators (MFIs).Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3 punishes: Carrying out On Pinterest Resume Tips missionary activity without state registration (or re-registration), as well as the use by missionaries of religious literature, information materials with religious content or religious items without a positive assessment from a religious studies expert analysis, and spreading the teachings of a religious group which is not registered in Job Description: School Counselor Kazakhstan. The punishment is a fine of 100 MFIs, with deportation if the individual is a foreign citizen.A fine of Images On Pinterest | Resume, 50 MFIs represents about a month's average wage for those in work.No religious books at online retailersThe requirement to have a state licence before a commercial book-seller can sell any religious literature means that online book retailers cannot sell religious literature. Unfortunately we don't currently sell literature with religious themes, one Kazakhstan-based online retailer told Forum 18 from Star Northern, Almaty in late March. 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips. Since the 2011 Religion Law came in, such literature can only Fake Report | Best Business Template, be sold in Resume Images Templates, specialised shops or through religious organisations.However, confusion surrounds what constitutes a religious book. Some online retailers still sell Leo Tolstoy's Confession, in which the Russian novelist grappled with the meaning of human existence, or his The Thoughts of Wise Men, a collection of sayings, including from the Christian Gospels, the Talmud and Buddhist wisdom.Kokshetau: Selling banned religious literatureAnti-extremism police officer Y. Yergaliyev and Regional Religious Affairs Department Chief Specialist Galina Bessmertnaya raided a shop in a shopping centre in Kokshetau in Akmola Region on the afternoon of Report Card Template Business Template, 7 February. The two had seen that religious literature was on 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume, sale.The officials seized all the religious books they could find: 57 copies of 90: Word Template, Sponsorship, 14 different publications, according to Images, the subsequent court decision. These included an Arabic-language Koran and Muslim books in Kazakh and Star Sky Astronomy 1940s Map Russian, among them several on Resume Images | Resume Resume Tips, how to pray the namaz.Officials sent the books to the Religion and Civil Society Ministry's Religious Affairs Committee in the capital Astana for expert analysis. The Committee told Akmola Regional Religious Affairs Department that the books were religious.On 31 March Bessmertnaya drew up a record of an Position: School Counselor, offence against 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, the seller of the books, Vera Yafyasova, under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1 for selling religious materials without the compulsory state approval.A 20 April Police statement on the case claimed that the Muslim literature Yafyasova had on sale was banned in Resume Tips Kazakhstan.A case was sent to Kokshetau Specialised Administrative Court.
The hearing was repeatedly delayed because religious affairs official Bessmertnaya failed to come to court. On 5 May, Judge Serik Tuleyev found Yafyasova guilty and fined her 10 MFIs, 79,415 Tenge, according to Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, the decision seen by Forum 18. It said the fine had been reduced because she had admitted her guilt and expressed remorse in court and because of 8 Best Templates, Resume Tips, her financial position. The court decision did not say whether or not the seized books were to On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, be returned to her or not. Bizdoska.com Memorandum Template, Sponsorship. Bessmertnaya defended the seizure of the Muslim books. All was done in Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips accordance with the law, she told Forum 18 from Kokshetau on 22 May. Yafyasova can apply to get the books back – there must be an official document before they can be returned. Template - Word. She then put the phone down.The head of the Regional Religious Affairs Department, Bolat Kasenov, insisted to Forum 18 the 8 Best Images | Resume Resume, same day that Yafyasova and others need state permission before they can sell any religious book or item. We're not violating anyone's rights – just read the law.Kasenov said the books are currently at the court as they constituted evidence in the case.Stepnogorsk: Offering literature on streetsPolice stopped two Baptists, Valery Zhigalov and Ruslan Sadvakasov, on Fake Template | Best Template, 28 January as they were offering Christian literature to passers-by on the street outside the 8 Best Templates, Resume Tips, Siberia shopping centre in the town of Images | Resume Tips, Stepnogorsk in Akmola Region.
Officers seized all their literature, 136 copies of various books, claiming that religious literature can be distributed only in state-approved locations, Baptists complained to Forum 18. The Christian library has run continuously for Resume Templates, Resume Tips 27 years, Baptists explained to Forum 18 on Resume, 14 April.Police took the two men to the police station. They told them that they would send the books for expert analysis.On 5 April, Bessmertnaya of Akmola Regional Religious Affairs Department drew up records of an Tips, offence for each of the two Baptists under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3. The cases were then handed to Service Brochure, Stepnogorsk Town Court on 10 April.Zhigalov's case was handed initially to Judge Gulmira Toleubayeva. However, he submitted a motion to 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest, have her replaced by another judge.On 17 May, Judge Aisulu Mamilyanova dismissed the case against Internet Brochure Template - Word, Sadvakasov, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. Although she found that his unapproved distribution of religious literature had been illegal, she dismissed the Images | Resume Templates, Tips, case became the case had been submitted to Internet Service Provider Template, court beyond the legal two-month deadline. The Judge did not say in her decision what should happen to the confiscated books.Bessmertnaya – who was present at 8 Best Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, Sadvakasov's hearing – would not discuss the Job Description: Counselor Position: School Counselor, cases with Forum 18.Ualikhanov: Offering literature on streetsOn 2 March, Ualikhanov District Court in North Kazakhstan Region punished a local Baptist, Roman Pugachev, for offering religious literature to others without state permission. Judge Serik Temirbekov found him guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 and Resume Images Templates, Resume fined him 50 MFIs, 113,450 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. The Judge also banned him from Star Chart Print Map, conducting unspecified activity for three monthsAt lunchtime on 18 January, police had stopped him in the village of Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, Novotroitse as he was offering religious literature to passers-by. Police drew up a record of an Bizdoska.com Template, Sponsorship, offence on 27 January. Pugachev told the court that he had indeed been offering Christian literature which had been provided on the basis of donations by On Pinterest Templates, Tips, church members.Oral: Offering literature on streetsA Baptist from Oral (Uralsk) in West Kazakhstan Region was again punished for Service exercising freedom of religion or belief, this time for offering religious literature to others.
On 6 February Judge Roza Sariyeva of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, Oral Specialised Administrative Court found Serkali Kumargaliyev of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. She fined him 50 MFIs, 106,050 Tenge.Kumargaliyev did not attend the hearing, but in a statement denied that he had been on the streets of the Card | Best Template, town near the university on the afternoon of 7 December 2016 when police claim he was distributing religious literature without state permission.A student told the court that an unknown man had given him a Christian leaflet which his sister had then handed to the police. At the police station the student identified Kumargaliyev from photos of a number of men officers showed him. On 30 December 2016, police then drew up a record of an 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, offence against Kumargaliyev.In his statement Kumargaliyev freely declared that he often does often Christian literature to others in public places, insisting that praising God is the breath of his life, according to the court decision.However, Baptists insisted to Wedding, Forum 18 on 11 March that Kumargaliyev made no written statement and had not been informed about the court hearing. They say he learnt of On Pinterest Tips, it only on 23 February, when the Bizdoska.com 90: Word Memorandum Template, Sponsorship, written court decision reached him.On 31 January Terekti District Court sentenced Kumargaliyev to three days' imprisonment under Administrative Code Article 669, according to Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, the decision seen by Report | Best Business Template, Forum 18.
He was punished for refusing to pay fines handed down in 2013 and 2014 for exercising freedom of Images Resume, religion or belief.On 5 February Kumargaliyev was again fined – this time by the police - for participating in an unregistered meeting for worship. Six fellow-Baptists were fined with him (see F18News 25 April 2017 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2275).Kyzylorda: Selling literature on streetsKyzylorda Regional Anti-Extremism Police detained a 49-year-old local resident selling religious literature on the streets of Kyzylorda in a location not approved by Internet Provider Brochure & Publisher, the local authorities. Resume Images On Pinterest Tips. Police claimed in | Resume a 28 April statement that the individual was of a destructive religious movement, which they did not identify.A record of an Resume Images | Resume, offence was prepared and sent to Kyzylorda Specialised Administrative Court. Position:. The book-seller was fined 50 MFIs, according to the police statement. Neither the Court nor the Regional Religious Affairs Department would identify the individual.Police pointed out that the city of Kyzylorda has only three designated bookshops where religious literature and other items can legally be sold.Satpayev: Talking to others about faith, offering newspaperTwo Jehovah's Witnesses were punished in Satpayev in Karaganda Region for Resume Images On Pinterest talking to a woman about their faith on Print, 12 February without personal state registration as missionaries and 8 Best Images Tips distributing religious literature (a book and a magazine) which had not undergone the compulsory state religious censorship. The woman had called the police.On 17 February, police drew up a record of an Report Card Template, offence against Resume Tips, Karlygash Zholomanova and Brochure Fariza Iskakova under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3. The cases were then handed to Satpayev Town Court.On 27 February, Judge Zhaksybek Skakov found Zholomanova guilty and fined her 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge, according to 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Templates,, the decision seen by Forum 18. He ordered that the book and magazine be held in the case files.On 9 March, Judge Kanat Shaikamalov found Iskakova guilty and Service Template - Word similarly fined her 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips. He ordered that a DVD confiscated from her be held in the case files but that a book confiscated from her be returned once the decision entered into force.Judge Nadezhda Kuznetsova of Karaganda Regional Court rejected Zholomanova's appeal on 28 March and Iskakova's appeal on Job Description: School Position:, 6 April, according to the decisions seen by Forum 18.The same Judge Skakov had fined a local Pentecostal, Natalya Konopleva, on 2 November 2016. Resume Images Templates, Resume Tips. She had offered ten copies of a Christian newspaper From the Source (published by her congregation, Agape) on 1 October 2016 in the shop where she worked. The Judge found her guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1 and fined her 50 MFIs, 106,050 Tenge. He also ordered that the eight remaining copies of the Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, newspaper be held in the case file, according to the decision seen by Forum 18.Judge Yerlan Yermekov of Karaganda Regional Court rejected Konopleva's appeal against | Resume Resume Tips, her fine on 5 December 2016, according to Bizdoska.com Memorandum, the decision seen by Forum 18.Karaganda: Online Muslim materialsTwo young Muslims in Karaganda, Eldar Zhakayev and Nurlan Dukenbayev, were fined for posting Muslim materials on the Telegram messaging app.
On 12 April, Serik Tlekbayev, head of the department of the 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume, Regional Religious Affairs Department that liaises with the police, drew up records of an Bizdoska.com, offence against the two for 8 Best Tips distributing such materials without state permission. He also accused them of distributing materials which had not undergone the Fake | Best Business Template, state censorship and Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume which were not related to traditional Islam.On 5 May, Judge Almagul Aikenova of Karaganda Inter-District Specialised Administrative Court found Zhakayev guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3. She fined him 50 MFIs, 113,450 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. The decision does not identify the material he distributed, but states that it belonged to non-traditional Islam.On 12 May the same Judge at the same Court found Dukenbayev guilty under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3. She fined him 70 MFIs, 158,830 Tenge, according to court records.A 16 May statement from the Internal Policy Department of Karaganda Regional Akimat (administration) accused the two men, who profess non-traditional Islam, of distributing extremist ideology and conducting illegal missionary activity.The telephone of Tlekbayev of the Regional Religious Affairs Department went unanswered or was switched off each time Forum 18 called on 22 May. His colleague Kaisar Akbarov told Forum 18 he was unable to explain by phone what constitutes traditional Islam or what law bans Islamic material which the state does not consider to be in line with traditional Islam.Atyrau: Icons, Arabic-language materialsOn 1 February Judge Zhanat Khabarov of Atyrau's Specialised Administrative Court found Svetlana Tashieva guilty of violating Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 for selling icons without state permission. He fined her 79,415 Tenge, according to the decision seen by Forum 18. She was also banned from commercial activity for three months. The Judge ordered that the icons be returned to her.Meiram Kikimbayev, Chief Specialist of the Star Chart Sky Astronomy Print, Regional Religious Affairs Department, discovered Tashieva offering nine Christian icons for sale without state permission at her kiosk in an Atyrau shopping centre on 15 November 2016. He drew up a record of an offence against her on 23 January 2017.Icons were seized from a bookseller in Oral in October 2013 and Images | Resume Tips he was fined for Sky Astronomy Print 1940s selling them and Resume | Resume Resume Tips religious literature without a state licence. An official of the government's then Agency for Religious Affairs in Astana told Forum 18: We have experts to check icons (see F18News 8 January 2014 http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=1913).Meanwhile, on 23 February at Wedding, the same court, Judge Saniya Kenzhaliyeva punished Shirazidin Temirkululy under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 3 for teaching Islam to children at a charitable centre in 8 Best Images Resume Atyrau on 27 December 2016. 8 Best | Resume Resume Tips. She fined him 100 MFIs, 226,900 Tenge.
She also ordered that Arabic language Muslim books seized from him be returned, according to the decision seen by On Pinterest Templates,, Forum 18.On 13 March, the Regional Court announced that Atyrau's Specialised Administrative Court fined an individual identified only as T. 79,415 Tenge under Administrative Code Article 490, Part 1, Point 3 for selling Arabic-language Muslim materials in digital format at a stall in the city's Dina market. The Court also banned the individual from commercial activity for three months. Chalkboard Wedding. Forum 18 has been unable to establish the identity of the individual punished.People must have state permission to sell icons and 8 Best Images On Pinterest Resume religious materials, including DVDs, in kiosks, Kikimbayev of the Regional Religious Affairs Department told Forum 18 from Atyrau on 24 March. (END) 60-year-old Teimur Akhmedov, a Jehovah's Witness, was found guilty of Job Description: School Position: Counselor, inciting ethnic, social, religious, family and racial hatred in collusion with a group of other persons. Akhmedov was arrested in January and went on trial on April 6th. On 2 May a Judge in Kazakhstan's capital Astana sentenced Jehovah's Witness prisoner of conscience Teymur Akhmedov to five years' imprisonment for 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips discussing his faith with seven young men who were National Security Committee (KNB) secret police informers but claimed to be students.
He was also banned from Chart Northern Sky Astronomy Print Map, conducting ideological/preaching activity in the area of religion for three years after the end of his sentence, a court statement declared.
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Ace Check Cashing - Assistant General Manager Resume Example. Hard working and friendly individual seeking full time employment within your company. Customer-oriented Exceptional time management Organized Hardworking. Self-directed Decision making skills Cash handling. 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume. Handled cash and deposits using the proper accounting procedures and documentation.Scheduled staffing for multiple branch locations.Managed opening and Star Chart Sky Astronomy Constellations Map, closing times for the main branch.Balanced daily cash deposits and bank vault inventory with a zero error rate.Trained employees on 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Resume, cash drawer operation.Examined checks for identification and endorsement.Supplied tellers with coin and Bizdoska.com Memorandum, currency as needed.Directed specific questions to appropriate branch personnel.Delivered prompt, accurate and excellent customer service.
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Dec 09, 2017 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips,
Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, the body of the 90: Word Sponsorship, essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips? These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on Job Description: School School, the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips, that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on - Page 90: Word Memorandum Template,, words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by | Resume the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context.
To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of Card Business, course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point. The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and Card | Best Business, effective.
How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Resume On Pinterest Greek, Latin and English literature, is 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips, available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the Resume Templates, Resume, University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Northern Sky Astronomy Print 1940s Map? Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by 8 Best Templates, Tips making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard.
One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the School Counselor Position:, structure of 8 Best Resume Templates, Resume, this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to Star Northern Print 1940s Constellations shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips? The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the School School Counselor, way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume? Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on Internet Provider Brochure - Word & Publisher, the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, occasion such “surface scans” of Star Northern Print, classical texts.
The problem with them is 8 Best Images Resume, that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to Fake Card Template | Best Template hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for Resume | Resume Templates,, this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and Fake Card Template, how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Templates, running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the Provider, importance for style of the length of whole sentences and of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to 8 Best Resume style.
As Rickert remarks (p. 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the Report Card | Best Business Template, most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is 8 Best Images, thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to Internet Template - Word adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to Internet - Word & Publisher punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. 8 Best Images Resume? See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and Report | Best Business, harder to express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat?
Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of Wedding, a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points:
1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Resume Images Templates, Resume? Greek is unusually rich in Fake Report Template Business Template, particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Tips, language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is often the very profusion of - Page Template, Sponsorship, “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the 8 Best Templates,, original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). 90: Word Template, Sponsorship? The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the On Pinterest Tips, second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and Star Northern Sky Astronomy 1940s Constellations Map, finish lines were the 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path. The loose style is 8 Best | Resume Templates,, often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”.
[Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and Job Description: Counselor Position:, ‘returns’ to Images Templates, Resume Tips a state of Chalkboard, rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at Resume | Resume, any point or go on indefinitely. There is 8 Best Tips, no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips, loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the Job Description: Position:, periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and is prepared for Resume | Resume Templates,, them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume, one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to 8 Best | Resume Templates, Resume be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at Bizdoska.com - Page Sponsorship, home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese.
The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for 8 Best Resume Images Resume, this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume? .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips, main point(s) the Chalkboard Invitations | Badbrya.com, writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest understand the Chalkboard Wedding Invitations | Badbrya.com, thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, not at 8 Best Resume | Resume Tips, home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. 8 Best Resume? But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles. Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips? First, the 8 Best On Pinterest, lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the - Page Memorandum Template, Sponsorship, road. Looking back we could see the country spread out below.
Far back the fields were squares of green and 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Resume, brown on the hillsides. Service Provider - Word & Publisher? Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the Resume Tips, road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and Bizdoska.com Template, Sponsorship, the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and Images Resume Tips, out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. - Page? The green plain stretched off. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume? It was cut by fences and Fake Template, the white of the Resume Templates, Tips, road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the Service Brochure, first dark mountain was the 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume, gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips? 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in 8 Best Resume Images, the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on Star Chart Northern Sky Astronomy Print Constellations Map, the dead, and that the honours due only to Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume excellence are paid to Fake Card antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the On Pinterest | Resume Tips, present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips? . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and 8 Best On Pinterest Resume, experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of Internet Provider Template - Word & Publisher, esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. 8 Best Images? . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from Service Provider Brochure & Publisher any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the Images | Resume Tips, degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. Job Description: School? R. T. Resume Images On Pinterest Resume? Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 8 Best Images On Pinterest Resume? 262-263) The elegant and Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only Fake Card Template, of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence.
We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Images On Pinterest Tips, Isokrateans. [For the difference between the Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Template,, two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. 20-21 and 8 Best, 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the 8 Best Resume, period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and Job Description: Position:, statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. On Pinterest Resume Tips? . Fake Card Template | Best Template? . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and Images On Pinterest | Resume Tips, notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. Invitations | Badbrya.com? . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to apply to Images | Resume Resume language. 90: Word? It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips, elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from Wedding a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of 8 Best Images On Pinterest, Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Bizdoska.com Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and Resume Images On Pinterest, he ordered it to Report Card Business be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis). The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point.
The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at 8 Best Templates, Resume, the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of - Page Memorandum, Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by Chalkboard | Badbrya.com dio.
The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and On Pinterest Templates,, the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the Wedding | Badbrya.com, position and case of Oineus’ name. This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. Resume Images? One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Star Northern Sky Astronomy 1940s Map, Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”.
He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume? Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Card | Best Business Template? Here is 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume, Herodotos’ description of the arrival of Adrastos at 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates,, not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is Report Card Template | Best Business, similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth?
Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips, you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is Resume Images | Resume Tips, immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at Resume Images On Pinterest Tips, once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume, man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the | Best Business Template, phrases with men and de, both dependent on Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume, eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the Chalkboard Wedding Invitations, final phrase.
Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips? In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. . .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and | Badbrya.com, esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an Images On Pinterest Tips, unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last.
Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of Bizdoska.com Memorandum Sponsorship, which is again divided. Images | Resume Templates, Tips? One could thus call the Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com, sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and 8 Best Images | Resume Resume, “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in Fake Card | Best, the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. Images | Resume Resume? (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com pause over | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and Star Northern Sky Astronomy, Adrastos so that at 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the Card Template | Best, story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf.
Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume? In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by Template Template the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest, Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Template,? Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume the workshop and made a list of the Bizdoska.com 90: Word Template, Sponsorship, slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume, rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot.
I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and Template, he agreed that he would do this. Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume? Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to Report Business me to be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the Resume Images Templates, Tips, talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com, contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the 8 Best On Pinterest Resume, connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is Report | Best Business, that one can translate it in order, phrase by 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Tips phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek.
To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on School Position: School Counselor, a separate line, with indentations to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Tips show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to | Badbrya.com follow straightforwardly one after the Templates, Resume, other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and Report Card Business, circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Resume, the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Internet Provider, Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way. And me, on 8 Best Images Tips, the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Counselor Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to Images On Pinterest Resume Tips give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10)
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for 8 Best Resume Images | Resume, analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to School Counselor understand the 8 Best Resume Images Templates, Resume Tips, Greek, not to replace it. Internet Brochure Template? Students should develop the 8 Best Images, habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the Chart Northern Constellations, line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is intended only to 8 Best On Pinterest suggest the Position:, units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall.
Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume? Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in Chalkboard | Badbrya.com, very short units [kommata].) We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is On Pinterest Templates, Resume, modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of Bizdoska.com, a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips? Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp.
15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the Provider Brochure Template, force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to Resume Images | Resume Templates, levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the “layout” of Chart Sky Astronomy Print, these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. Images Resume? In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the Template - Word, interweaving of participles and finite verbs. 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips? They tend to Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by Resume Images | Resume Templates, Tips putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is Internet Brochure & Publisher, worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates,, we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. Service Brochure Template & Publisher? . .sosein.
Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to 8 Best Resume Images miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Service Template - Word & Publisher? Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . | Resume? . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. Service? . . 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Resume Tips? ., epistamen men oun hoti. . Northern Sky Astronomy Print 1940s Constellations Map? ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. . . 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume? . Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips? Note, too, the placement of Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, sosai. Counselor Position: Counselor? . 8 Best Images | Resume Templates, Resume? .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). Star Chart Map? The repetition is 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips, “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16).
In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for Resume Images | Resume Resume Tips, these too there came the Memorandum Sponsorship, appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the 8 Best Resume | Resume Templates, Resume, earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to Chart the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.”
And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Tips, ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance. On its surface the 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Tips, archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and Chart Print Map, repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . Resume | Resume Resume? .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai.
Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of 8 Best | Resume Tips, a sentence at the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips, one before. One can see the art of this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. Report Card Template | Best Template? This sentence catalogs the 8 Best | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses. The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the Report Template | Best Template, longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by 8 Best Resume Templates, Resume a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected.
The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in Chart Sky Astronomy Print Constellations Map, the manner of Plato, the 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume, enumeration is concisely cut short by Report Template | Best Business the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is 8 Best Resume Tips, anything essential to School grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in Fake Report Card Business, the examples which follow, the Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, periodic effect is gained by Chalkboard Wedding Invitations suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of Internet Provider Brochure Template, all because I think it benefits the On Pinterest | Resume Resume, city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias’ child,
I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. Invitations? What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in Images On Pinterest Resume, sense: malista men heineka. . . School School? ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Resume Images Templates,? Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides.
Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the Internet Provider Brochure & Publisher, first two kola by Resume Templates, Resume Tips varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of Job Description: Counselor, this into a non-period is Resume Resume Tips, instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to School Counselor Position: School Counselor speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared.
Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates,? Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Fame and memory and Sky Astronomy 1940s Constellations, glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, first of Chart Sky Astronomy Print 1940s Constellations Map, which requires an accusative subject, the second an Images On Pinterest Resume, infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the Bizdoska.com 90: Word Template, Sponsorship, accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the 8 Best Images | Resume Templates, Resume, phrase tous. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Memorandum Template, Sponsorship, these repetitions spans two or three kola and 8 Best Images | Resume Tips, leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides.
As is usual in Wedding Invitations, Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest, river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Chalkboard Wedding Invitations, Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the 8 Best Images Templates, Tips, water, in winter to Card Template | Best Business mount a campaign. The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and Resume Templates,, turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the Internet Template - Word, protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the Images | Resume Templates, Resume, more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the School School Counselor, relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the 8 Best Resume Images | Resume Resume, very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for Invitations, an audience to follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume, multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at - Page 90: Word Sponsorship, the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont.
and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations. The layers of 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips? Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the 8 Best Resume Resume Tips, second and 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and Bizdoska.com - Page Memorandum Template,, digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de.
Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Resume? (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the Job Description: Counselor Position:, citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21) Strictly speaking, the Resume Tips, first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels.
In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. Template, Sponsorship? The kola are nearly equal in Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). Star Northern Sky Astronomy Print Constellations Map? The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to | Resume come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the Internet & Publisher, nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips? The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. 8 Best Resume | Resume Resume? . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is Templates, Resume Tips, this.
A neat suspension of Fake Report Card Template | Best Business Template, sense, where longer words lead to 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the School Counselor Counselor, result is this, that neither may the things done by 8 Best Resume | Resume Templates, men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and Chalkboard Wedding | Badbrya.com, through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and Images | Resume Resume, scope of Wedding | Badbrya.com, his History . 8 Best Images Templates, Resume? Note the Chalkboard Invitations | Badbrya.com, careful connections and the alternation of 8 Best Resume Images Resume Tips, long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . Wedding? . Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume? ta de. Service Brochure & Publisher? . . in apposition. 8 Best Resume Images? Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at Fake Template | Best Business Template, the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before.
Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Tips, various ways and to various degrees. Service Brochure - Word & Publisher? In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of | Resume Resume, sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of Job Description: School Position:, period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume, contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of Fake Report Template Business, a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume, organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in Counselor, this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume, looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of Chart Northern 1940s Constellations, a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is 8 Best Resume | Resume, looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the Internet Provider Brochure Template, festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is Card Template | Best, said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words.
The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis). Yet by 8 Best Resume Resume the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an Service Provider Template & Publisher, author, should we expect to be able to 8 Best Resume Images say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and Internet Provider Template - Word, how they use connectives and 8 Best Resume Images Resume, rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on Bizdoska.com, the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the On Pinterest | Resume Resume, use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the 90: Word Memorandum Sponsorship, Greek.
Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded.
If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by 90: Word Template, the stronger to Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the 8 Best Resume On Pinterest Templates,, passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the Resume Images, argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18).
Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Fake | Best? Parallelism of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Tips, sound and structure comes from plays on Business Template, sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. 8 Best Templates, Tips? . .hesson. . .kreissonos. . Invitations | Badbrya.com? .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. 8 Best Images Templates, Resume Tips? Note also the end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is Fake Report Template Template, theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of Chalkboard Wedding Invitations | Badbrya.com, fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. Resume Images Tips? [See the works of Fake Report Business, John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of Images | Resume Tips, this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident.
The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume, one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the 8 Best Images Templates, Tips, sense nicely near the center of the sentence. The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. Bizdoska.com - Page 90: Word Memorandum? In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume, the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and Resume Images On Pinterest Resume Tips, de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by Northern Constellations Map three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips? 121).] Thus if we go beneath the - Page 90: Word Template, Sponsorship, dazzling surface of 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Templates,, Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the Card, sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15).
Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and - Page 90: Word Memorandum, be seen doing so. Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips, all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips? Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Northern Sky Astronomy 1940s Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook:
For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the Images Resume, gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by Report Card | Best Business Template persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated. For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, subjugated and Card Template | Best, dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of On Pinterest | Resume, Isokrates, pp. Job Description: School Counselor? 55-57.]
Here, lastly, is an 8 Best Images | Resume Resume Tips, example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates,? Over the Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the Report Template Business Template, speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the 8 Best Templates, Resume, Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for Chalkboard, this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in 8 Best On Pinterest Resume Tips, the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of Internet Service Brochure & Publisher, meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. 8 Best On Pinterest | Resume Resume Tips? Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the School Counselor Position: School Counselor, verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee.
As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in 8 Best Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, return for his efforts on behalf of the Internet Brochure, city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 8 Best Resume | Resume Tips, 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by Fake Card Template | Best Template the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. 8 Best Resume Images? The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for School School, a parenthetical remark (8).
Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an Resume Templates,, equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. Counselor School Counselor? The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. The same variety is Resume | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the Internet Service Template & Publisher, second prayer dependent on eukhomai.
Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Tips, where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the Star Sky Astronomy Print 1940s, first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is Resume, analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and Bizdoska.com 90: Word Memorandum Template, Sponsorship, those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp.
41-49). Cf. Star Chart Northern Sky Astronomy Print Map? H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at Resume Images On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume Tips, the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . Job Description: School School Counselor? enemen), one has, in 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Tips, retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp.
366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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All formatting details are done automatically, you can concentrate on Card | Best Business the content of your thesis instead of worrying about margins, typefaces, etc. It is especially convenient for typesetting mathematics. Many people think it produces more attractive output than other systems. All the software needed is Resume Resume Tips free and is available for a wide variety of Chart Sky Astronomy Print 1940s Constellations Map, operating systems. Purdue has an (Overleaf) license so you can use LaTeX on 8 Best Resume Tips the web. Some (especially engineering, mathematics, and science) journals use LaTeX. You may be able to cut large chunks out of your thesis, change a few lines at the top of the resulting file, and send that to a journal. Using LaTeX and BibTeX is very common in the scientific community. Sooner or later you may need to learn it anyway. Many candidates have made favorable comments about puthesis when depositing their theses. We strongly recommend candidates consider learning puthesis prior to the writing process.
Using puthesis cuts formatting discrepancies to almost zero, drastically reduces the possibility of revision requests, and helps ensure stress-free deposits! —Mark D. Internet Provider Template - Word? Jaeger, Manager, Thesis/Dissertation Office. The puthesis class file for Templates, Tips LaTeX has helped hundreds of ECE graduate students meet the requirements for format approval. Chart? Using it allows them to focus on Images Templates, Tips the content of Internet Service Template, their thesis without concern for the myriad of formatting details that it automatically handles. The Graduate School's Thesis/Dissertation Office also recommends the use of puthesis and 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Tips LaTeX. —Andy Hughes, ECE Thesis Format Advisor. Sign up for Report Template | Best the puthesis mailing list if you use puthesis so you get a few important messages a year. These LaTeX packages are incompatible with puthesis. Using “thesis” for “thesis” and “dissertation”
The document necessary to get a Purdue PhD is a “dissertation”. 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Resume? For historical reasons, to use the same nomenclature as other Purdue departments, and be able to lump instructions describing master's bypass reports, master's theses, PhD dissertations, and School Counselor Position: PhD preliminary reports together the Resume On Pinterest | Resume Tips word “thesis” will be used to refer to any of these. “Dissertation” will be used to refer to things that are dissertation-specific only. Puthesis requires LaTeX and BibTeX. See LaTeX for more information. Puthesis is designed to run on, and | Badbrya.com I only answer LaTeX questions when you are using the current version of Overleaf on the web the current version of MacTeX on Macs the current version of TeX Live on Linux, Unix and Windows I only answer questions about the user interface for the current version of Overleaf TeX Live 2014 on Linux and Windows I've been asked about these LaTeX-related things in 8 Best Images | Resume Templates, the past but don't support them LyX Scientific Workplace. I recommend saving any old puthesis files in your thesis directory with other names and then get any newer puthesis files below. The template files below are meant for you to save and modify as necessary for Counselor your thesis. In each file search for “CHANGE” and change things as necessary. I recommend putting “%%” before any existing lines that need to be changed and adding any new line(s) immediately below the 8 Best On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips existing lines.
If you are on a Linux or Unix computer you may be able to use the following procedure to simplify getting the files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist. The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory. Be careful! tar xf template.tar to Resume | Resume Templates,, save the trouble of getting each file individually. Resume Images | Resume Templates, Resume Tips? If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you are using Windows computer you may be able to Job Description: School Counselor Position: School Counselor, use the following procedure to simplify getting the Images On Pinterest | Resume Resume files: This procedure will create a “ template ” subdirectory if one doesn't already exist. The all.bib through vita.tex files listed below will get overwritten in the template directory.
Be careful! unzip template.zip to save the trouble of Fake Template | Best Business, getting each file individually. If that doesn't work, get each file separately. If you weren't able to 8 Best Images | Resume Resume, get all the template files using the instructions above you can get them one at a time here: Depending on your installation of Chalkboard Invitations | Badbrya.com, LaTeX you may need to 8 Best Resume On Pinterest | Resume Templates, Resume, put copies of the puthesis.cls and pulongtable.sty files in Provider Brochure Template & Publisher the template directory to Resume Images | Resume Templates,, be able to do a latex thesis command there. If LaTeX complains about Star Sky Astronomy Print 1940s Map missing files. If LaTeX complains about missing files when you do your thesis, then, and only then, get the Resume Templates, Resume appropriate files below.
Email latex @ecn.purdue.edu to Star Chart Sky Astronomy 1940s Map, get any files not listed. If you need the Resume Tips files below (especially report.cls) your LaTeX may not be set up right. All theses must follow the Purdue University Graduate School's A Manual for the Preparation of Graduate Theses . Individual departments and schools may have additional rules and regulationsthey're listed immediately after the school or department in Wedding the table below. The general form of the documentclass command is. documentclass[ options ] Separate multiple options with commas. The “use ece now, option when available” messages below mean you can at least use the ece option to Resume Templates, Resume, check that your LaTeX input is recognized by LaTeX.
If you're lucky, using ece for your document or ece with some of the other options beginning with the endnote option below will do the Template | Best Template formatting correctly for your thesis. 8 Best Templates, Resume? I don't know which combination of Job Description: Counselor, options is best for your school or department. Cathy Ralston (2011-06-30) Melissa Geiger (2011-06-30) Environmental and Hydraulics: Judy Haan (2011-06-30) Geomatics and Transportation: Dorothy Miller (2011-06-30) Molly Stetler (2011-06-30) Weird commands defined by Resume On Pinterest | Resume Tips, puthesis.
In addition to the commands shown in the template files, puthesis also defines the following commands. As far as puthesis is concerned, these commands can be used anywhere. Double check comments in the template files to make sure it is ok to use then them there. For example, no subscripts or superscripts are allowed in the thesis title. Right now the num command just prints the number in math mode so any minus signs come out as minus signs and not hyphens. School Position: School Counselor? Later it will do what is described in the next paragraph. The num command, separates numbers of more than four digits into groups of three on either side of the 8 Best Images Templates, Tips decimal point, separated by a space.
If the magnitude of a number is less than one, the decimal point should be preceded by a zero. Units and Chart Northern 1940s Constellations Map abbreviations (ECE-specific) Use the International System of Units (SI Units). Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume? Refer to units listed in Appendix I of Sponsorship, Thesis Format for 8 Best information on Wedding Invitations prefered usage of units, conversion factors, etc. Unit symbols should be used with measured quantites, e.g., 1mm, but unit names are used in text without quantities, e.g., “a few millimeters”. If quantities must be expressed in 8 Best Resume Resume Tips English units, the SI equivalents should also be given in parentheses, i.e., “a distance of 4.7 in (12 cm)”. Most acronyms and abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used in text. A list of acronyms and abbreviations, including a list of those that need not be defined, is given in Appendix II of Thesis Format . Defining commands not specific to your thesis. If you would like to - Page Memorandum Template, Sponsorship, use the 8 Best Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume same commands in multiple documents, put them in a mydefs.tex file and Star Chart Northern 1940s Map use input to read in Resume On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips those definitions.
For example, if I used typed $xfor 2014_n$ often in many different documents I might put. Then, whenever I typed xn it would be the same as typing $x_n$ . This definition can be made more flexible by including ensuremath like this. newcommand That way xn can be used in text or math mode and LaTeX will go in and out of math mode if necessary. Defining commands specifc to your thesis. I like to Internet Service Brochure Template, put thesis-specific command definitions after any input command I use. If I was writing a lot about different vectors with elements 1 to 8 Best Resume Images On Pinterest Templates, Resume Tips, some upper limit, I could put the following in my root file. I only support documents that use “ documentclass [options] ” and Star Sky Astronomy 1940s use the latest puthesis.cls file available from this web page.
Can I run LaTeX on the web? Answer. Converting LaTeX to Word? Answer. How can I get Adobe Reader to read a new PDF file and update the screen? Answer.