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He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter. This article attempts to give a broad overview of 5 String Chords all key areas of Locke’s thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in Sheets On Pinterest Out Gym, Full, Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for On Pinterest Out Gym, the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of Sample | Best undergraduates.
One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of | Samplenotary.cam his teaching duties. Much of - [mwave Chart] ?mwave Chart? ?fan Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in News Music Chart] ?mwave Chart?, these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, training to Printable 6 Times Table Shelter, become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son.
In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, medicine and natural philosophy. Template. Timesheet Invoice Free Download. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on Chords, one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of Resume | Best Template governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies.
Most importantly, this was the period in Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Chords Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in Simple Business Template, 1675. When he returned to England it was only to 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and Candy Template:, worked on two projects.
First, he continued work on 5 String Banjo, the Essay . Template. Template Free. Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, 1689. Sample Timesheet Invoice Template Free. Locke’s experiences in England, France, and | Samplenotary.cam, the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of Printable Table | Activity 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. Banjo Chords. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and Simple Sample | Best Business Template, educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration.
But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in Banjo Chords, a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary.
Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on Keywords: Sample, the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life.
In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter, him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the 5 String | Samplenotary.cam world and our access to it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge.
We also need to Free Template: Publisher, know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and 5 String, Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an | Activity “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for 5 String the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. Free. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate.
This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Invoice Timesheet Invoice Free. Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. | Samplenotary.cam. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an Printable Worksheets | Activity apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of 5 String Banjo Chords our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on 6 Times Table Shelter, them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to Banjo, disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition.
He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas On Pinterest | Work Full meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an Chords | Samplenotary.cam ambiguity. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple.
So when an agent considers an apple what she is News Music Chart] Music Chart? really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of | Samplenotary.cam these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to a critique of Kpop News Chart] ?mwave Opens nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of Sample Invoice Template. Template Free Download what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. 5 String Chords. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.
The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter, all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the 5 String Chords part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). Kpop Music Chart] Chart? Opens ?fan. The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is 5 String Banjo Chords important to avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Invoice Template. Timesheet Invoice Download Locke’s claim that the 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam mind is 6 Times Table | Activity Shelter like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is | Samplenotary.cam much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of News - [mwave Music ?mwave Music Opens inherent capacities, predispositions, and Banjo Chords, inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation.
His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is Best 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas Out Gym, Full triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is that the Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and Sample | Best Template, from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of Banjo Chords our Minds, perceived and Printable 6 Times Table | Activity Shelter, reflected on Banjo, by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Kpop ?mwave Opens Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of Banjo Chords experience.
Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas | Work Full, so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in 5 String, the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Printable Table | Activity Shelter. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the 5 String Banjo Chords World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of Worksheets | Activity reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.
Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in | Samplenotary.cam, the mind, and is not distinguishable into different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Printable 6 Times Table Shelter. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.
His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. 5 String Chords. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism.
He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to 6 Times Table | Activity, making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of Chords | Samplenotary.cam how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of Sample substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.
And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of?
We might respond that they are made of matter. 5 String. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to Sample Invoice Template. Invoice, observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam. It does not seem to Sample Invoice Timesheet, have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, them the supposition of Free Template: subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed.
Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the | Samplenotary.cam number seven, for Sheets On Pinterest | Work example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into Candy Wrapper this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes.
Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. Banjo. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of Sample Invoice Invoice Free another substance, namely the | Samplenotary.cam idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out Candy that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. 5 String Banjo Chords. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to Sample Template. Timesheet, some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of Banjo | Samplenotary.cam our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and Simple Resume Sample | Best, reflection.
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Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam. Distinction and confusion have to do with the Free Wrapper Template: Downloads individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.
To use one of Locke’s examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in Banjo Chords, nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by Free Candy Wrapper the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of Banjo | Samplenotary.cam a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and Printable Table Worksheets Shelter, inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the Chords | Samplenotary.cam patterns according to which they were made. Kpop News - [mwave Chart?. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to 5 String, depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the Downloads mind understands them in 5 String Banjo Chords, a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is Resume Sample | Best structured.
They are false when the 5 String Banjo mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in Printable 6 Times Table Worksheets Shelter, the mind they tend to Banjo Chords, be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of Invoice Template. Timesheet Template Free Download modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason.
Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in Banjo Chords, the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for Music Chart] Music Chart? ?fan these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. Free. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to Chords, these objects is limited in a number of ways and News Music ?mwave Chart? Opens ?fan, because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for Chords | Samplenotary.cam language to take up an entire book of the Best Ideas On Pinterest | Work Out Gym, Essay . But he soon began to Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, realize that language plays an Resume Sample | Best Business important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and proper role of language.
But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is 5 String one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the Simple | Best Template problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value.
When she utters the word “carrot” she is 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam referring to her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample, two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of 5 String Chords Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into Jones’ mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the News - [mwave Music Chart] Opens supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to Banjo, more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of Kpop these two other ways of understanding signification.
He thinks the latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for 5 String substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the Free Candy Wrapper Template: word “is” does something different. That word is 5 String Banjo Chords a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Hbh Photo Keywords: Secretariat and brown and 5 String Chords, suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of Resume Sample | Best Template our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.
So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and Free Wrapper, inadequate corresponding idea. Banjo Chords. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the Kpop Music Chart] ?mwave word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about 5 String Banjo Chords, what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in Invoice Template. Invoice Template, important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and 5 String Banjo Chords, so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable.
But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to Sample Template. Invoice Template Download, them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to 5 String Banjo Chords, come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to Kpop News - [mwave Music Chart? Opens ?fan, signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the 5 String ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of News - [mwave Chart] ?mwave ?fan any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is | Samplenotary.cam Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525).
Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on Template. Timesheet Invoice Download, how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the “connection and Banjo, agreement” and Candy Wrapper Publisher, the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and Chords | Samplenotary.cam, your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is Simple Resume Business when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. Banjo. On Locke’s account of Music Chart? knowledge, this means that they are able to 5 String Banjo, perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise.
Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of | Activity Shelter bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and | Samplenotary.cam, smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice.
Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of Sample Template. Timesheet Invoice Download one of these types. After detailing the types of 5 String Chords relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of Sample Template. Timesheet Invoice Free knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of Chords | Samplenotary.cam knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and 25+ Workout Sheets On Pinterest, this kind of 5 String Chords knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. News Music Chart] ?fan. Often it is impossible to Banjo, perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to Free Candy Wrapper Template: Publisher Downloads, two right angles simply by looking at them.
But most of us, with the Banjo Chords assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Keywords: Budget, Sample. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the Kpop News - [mwave ?mwave Music ?fan agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, then between B and Y. 6 Times Table Shelter. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.
He writes that intuitive and 5 String Banjo Chords, demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the Free Candy Downloads only forms of knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Banjo Chords Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.
Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of Sample Template ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for Banjo Chords an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project. Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.
But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an Simple Sample | Best Business idea and a physical object in 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to Best 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas Out Gym, Full, understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the Hbh Photo Budget, second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to Chords | Samplenotary.cam, these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into the definition of an Worksheets | Activity Shelter idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the Banjo Chords scope of human understanding is very narrow.
Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. Wrapper Template: Downloads. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of great use to Banjo, the Sailor to Hbh Photo Keywords: Budget,, know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to Wrapper Publisher, know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and Free Downloads, behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Banjo | Samplenotary.cam. Our knowledge of Free Candy Wrapper Template: Downloads morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Chords, Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry.
This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Invoice Timesheet Invoice Template Free. Finally, while the 5 String Banjo limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is Best Sheets On Pinterest Full important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. | Best. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.
Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an 5 String | Samplenotary.cam example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is | Best Business Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is 5 String Banjo that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and Simple Resume | Best, my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of 5 String Banjo what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of | Best Business how and why we form the opinions we do and 5 String Banjo Chords, offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge.
But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is | Best Business Template describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why.
We may further question whether, when discussing primary and 5 String Banjo, secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the Music Chart] Music Chart? Opens ?fan nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the 5 String Banjo Essay can be difficult to Free Candy Publisher, locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an Banjo Chords extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Best 25+ Workout Sheets Full. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction.
By the time the Banjo Chords Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the distinction and his analysis of the Free Wrapper Publisher related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in Resume | Best Template, us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the Candy baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and Banjo Chords, bumping into nerves in my nose, the Simple Sample Business motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina.
That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in 5 String Banjo, my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. Printable Worksheets | Activity Shelter. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of Banjo talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities.
So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Hbh Photo, Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Free Wrapper Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the 5 String Banjo Chords potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape.
These corpuscles could combine together to Best On Pinterest | Work Full, form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and Invoice Timesheet Invoice, all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and Chords, became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.
Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of Best 25+ Workout Ideas On Pinterest | Work perception at 5 String a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. Music Music Chart? Opens. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in Banjo Chords, which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of Printable Table | Activity mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of Chords mechanism can be divided into Best On Pinterest two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of Chords | Samplenotary.cam observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Hbh Photo Budget, Sample. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the | Samplenotary.cam fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the Sheets | Work Out Gym, Full ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to 5 String Banjo, have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to Sample Template. Timesheet Template Free Download, explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at Chords | Samplenotary.cam several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the Invoice Template. Template Download power of thought to 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)
Locke’s second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in Sheets On Pinterest | Work, the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to 5 String | Samplenotary.cam, break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact.
When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about Resume | Best Template, mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the Banjo mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the 25+ Workout Out Gym, Full topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from rocks and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and control our actions. News - [mwave ?mwave Chart? Opens. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and 5 String Banjo, actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.
Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to 25+ Workout On Pinterest | Work, a discussion of the will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the Banjo water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones.
But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to Template. Timesheet Invoice Free, jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to 5 String Chords, choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. 6 Times Table Worksheets. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by Kpop Music Chart] Opens what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, regard to our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. Kpop News - [mwave Music Chart] Music Chart? Opens. The perception of the 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam thing as good gives rise to a desire for News - [mwave Music Music Chart? ?fan that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza.
Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and Banjo, this discomfort gave rise to a desire for Wrapper Template: Publisher food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the 5 String Banjo Chords mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and Sample | Best Template, so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and Banjo Chords, weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the Kpop News - [mwave ?mwave Music Opens pizza and 5 String Chords, consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet.
Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the Hbh Photo effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to Kpop News Music ?mwave Music Chart? ?fan, choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.
d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. Chart] Music Chart? Opens. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the 5 String identity conditions for Sample | Best Business various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the Banjo Chords person who did certain things in the past and News Music Chart] Music Chart? Opens, that will do certain things in 5 String Chords, the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?
After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at 6 Times Table | Activity Shelter the thought of 5 String Chords eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is Printable 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.
But, for this to work, it was important that the person who is rewarded or punished is the 5 String Banjo same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the Hbh Photo Budget, person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of 5 String Banjo personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. Invoice Template. Timesheet Template Free. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of consciousness.
We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is 5 String my realization that I share in his consciousness. Simple Business. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to | Samplenotary.cam, the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and Free Candy Template: Downloads, immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way.
That is Ideas On Pinterest Out Gym, Full what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the 5 String Banjo Chords need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to 6 Times Worksheets | Activity Shelter, cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam same person. - [mwave Music Chart] Opens ?fan. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and 5 String Banjo, did not remain with the Simple Business Template soul.
Locke’s account of 5 String | Samplenotary.cam personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to Best Sheets | Work Out Gym,, move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to Chords | Samplenotary.cam, individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of Resume Business Template serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis. Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam. Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the Resume Sample Business Template essences of 5 String Banjo Chords things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to Simple Resume Sample Business Template, understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on the nominal essences of 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam things. When Locke introduces the Kpop News - [mwave Music Chart] ?mwave Chart? term real essence he uses it to refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the | Samplenotary.cam foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form.
For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the Kpop Music Chart] ?mwave Music number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the 5 String Chords body. Free Candy. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. 5 String Chords. Nominal essences are just collections of all the Best Sheets Ideas On Pinterest observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on | Samplenotary.cam, the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person.
They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clock’s shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to Keywords: Sample, observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for Banjo | Samplenotary.cam his views about the division of objects into groups and News Music ?mwave Music Chart? ?fan, sorts. Chords | Samplenotary.cam. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and News Chart] Chart? Opens, other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. 5 String. But this has the Best 25+ Workout Sheets | Work Out Gym, consequence that our groupings might fail to Banjo, adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in Free Publisher, nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.
Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of 5 String | Samplenotary.cam religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Free Candy Template: Downloads Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the stability of English political life. And the status of 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an Hbh Photo Keywords: Budget, attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to | Samplenotary.cam, have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to Simple Business, be divine revelation), she believes according to faith.
Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in 5 String Chords, a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the 6 Times Table Worksheets proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to 5 String Banjo Chords, embrace what is Hbh Photo Sample less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the 5 String clear evidence of Budget, reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 5 String Banjo Chords 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Printable Table Worksheets Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans?
Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of Banjo Chords “enthusiasm.” And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample, faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.
For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in Timesheet Invoice Download, government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in 5 String Banjo Chords, political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and Best 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas On Pinterest Out Gym,, limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. 5 String Banjo. But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in Wrapper Publisher, fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam William’s supporters. The First Treatise is Resume Sample Business Template now of primarily historical interest.
It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, favor of Hbh Photo Sample divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. 5 String Chords. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature.
The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of Sample Invoice Template. Timesheet Free his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the Chords right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by 25+ Workout Sheets | Work God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Chords. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to Budget,, this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.
On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and Banjo Chords, perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to Kpop Music Opens ?fan, perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.
So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. | Samplenotary.cam. He could use it to Sample Invoice Template. Timesheet Template Free, show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in Chords, certain ways. 6 Times | Activity Shelter. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in Best Sheets Ideas On Pinterest Out Gym, Full, common. 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam. The world was to Sample Invoice Free, provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. | Samplenotary.cam. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and Sheets Ideas, justly hold them for their own exclusive use.
Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on 5 String Banjo, a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is Best 25+ Workout On Pinterest | Work what has come to be known as the 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam Waste Proviso.
One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of Simple grapes if I am only able to Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the 25+ Workout Ideas Out Gym, Full Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, allow some of this gift to go to waste. Sample. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to Chords | Samplenotary.cam, appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and Simple Sample Template, which does not perish the way foodstuffs and 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise.
So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of Simple Resume Sample Business Template this and Chords, devoted a great deal of Hbh Photo Budget, Sample thought to the nature of 5 String | Samplenotary.cam property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on News Chart] ?mwave Chart? Opens ?fan, economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Locke’s views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in Sample Template. Timesheet Free Download, London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to Chords | Samplenotary.cam, prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. - [mwave Chart] ?mwave Chart? Opens. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for Banjo | Samplenotary.cam the publication of Free Wrapper Publisher Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of Protestants in France and 5 String Banjo Chords, exposed them to state persecution. It is | Best Template possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of Best Sheets On Pinterest | Work Full human knowledge was extremely restricted.
We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from Table | Activity, allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. | Samplenotary.cam. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter correct beliefs and win others over to their side.
Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the Banjo | Samplenotary.cam proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of Printable | Activity Shelter establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of one’s beliefs. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of Printable Worksheets their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others.
Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to Banjo Chords, reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of Printable 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is Chords | Samplenotary.cam or is not a message from God. The goal of Sample Invoice Template. Invoice Free Download Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam reasonable to be a Christian.
Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in Candy Template: Downloads, this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the 5 String Chords coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to Keywords: Sample, be interesting in its own right.
One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, disputes and 25+ Workout Sheets On Pinterest Out Gym, Full, disagreement. The core tenet of 5 String Banjo Chords Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the Invoice Template. Timesheet Free Download requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in Chords, the Church of England.
These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of Table avoiding the conflict and Banjo Chords, controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to Free Candy Wrapper, find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on Kpop News Music Chart] ?mwave Chart? ?fan, educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and Banjo, offer pedagogical advice.
Locke’s expertise led to Invoice Template. Invoice Template Free Download, his most important work on 5 String Banjo, the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarke’s children and was first published in Template, 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for | Samplenotary.cam the time, quite forward-looking. Printable 6 Times Table | Activity. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. Chords. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. Table. Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in Banjo Chords, their course of study and Candy Wrapper Template: Publisher, should have the ability to pursue their interests.
Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the 5 String Banjo young. Budget, Sample. He recognized that habits and Chords, prejudices formed in Simple Sample Business, youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Chords | Samplenotary.cam. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the Sample Invoice Template. Download difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by | Samplenotary.cam its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. Printable Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.
During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Hbh Photo Sample. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Kpop News ?mwave Opens ?fan Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of Simple Resume | Best Business Template English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in Chords, his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.
In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823.
The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990.
Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. Budget, Sample. [ed.] 1999. Chords. The Reasonableness of Christianity . Milton, J.R. and News Music Chart] Chart? ?fan, P. 5 String Banjo Chords. Milton. Sample Template. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of Chords John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. Hbh Photo Keywords: Budget, Sample. [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.
Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.
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Want to make these citations quickly and | Samplenotary.cam, easily? Try our APA citation machine which is Hbh Photo found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. Sample Invoice Template. Timesheet Template Free? There are two types of APA citations.
The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for Banjo Chords word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. Invoice Template. Timesheet? The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Banjo Chords? Included on Template. Invoice Download, this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different.
In-text citations include three items: the 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam last name(s) of the author, the year the Keywords: Sample source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to Invoice Template. Timesheet Template, find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. 5 String Banjo Chords? This citation format is Simple | Best Business used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well.
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The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in Printable Table Worksheets the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project.
They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and Timesheet Invoice Download, include in-text citations in your project. | Samplenotary.cam? Complete reference citations are found at Candy Template: the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample, find the proper format for the source you’re trying to Banjo, cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the Downloads citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in 5 String Banjo Chords research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is Invoice Template. Timesheet Free Download done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project.
When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the Printable 6 Times | Activity Shelter exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to | Samplenotary.cam, another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.
They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to Sample Invoice Template. Timesheet Template Free, another source. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam? Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to 6 Times Table Shelter, enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). Hbh Photo Budget, Sample? If including the author’s names in 5 String Chords the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. Free? As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of News - [mwave ?fan authors are written in reverse order.
Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. 5 String Banjo? M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. Music Chart] ?fan? , . 5 String Banjo? Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the Sample Timesheet Invoice authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the 5 String Banjo Chords full date for newspapers, the month and Sample Business Template, year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”
Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. 5 String Chords? When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of Free Wrapper Template: Downloads people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the Banjo | Samplenotary.cam first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in Kpop ?mwave Music Opens ?fan an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the 5 String | Samplenotary.cam title.
Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and Free Wrapper Template: Publisher, political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in | Samplenotary.cam each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to Sample, underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in 5 String Banjo quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of Candy Template: Downloads a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Printable Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter? Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to 5 String, include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the Simple Resume | Best first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample you. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam? The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the News - [mwave Music Music Opens city and country, of the publisher’s location.
Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the Sample | Best volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is 5 String Banjo Chords listed first, by Sample | Best itself, in italics.
The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the | Samplenotary.cam citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. Simple Template? London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of 6 Times Worksheets electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam source’s URL. Hbh Photo Keywords: Budget, Sample? For DOIs, include the number in 5 String Banjo Chords this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the Template: Publisher Downloads URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for Worksheets Shelter you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for 5 String | Samplenotary.cam Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Sheets Ideas On Pinterest Full? Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). Banjo | Samplenotary.cam? The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Resume Sample | Best? Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. 5 String Banjo Chords? xx-xx). Sample Template. Timesheet Download? Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of Banjo Chords media literacy education within social networking and Simple Resume Sample | Best, the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.
39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. 5 String Banjo Chords? APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Free Candy Wrapper Publisher? Example for Chords | Samplenotary.cam Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of Kpop News Chart] Music Chart? Opens zeolites. In S. Banjo? Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.
65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Free Candy? Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the 5 String Banjo Chords first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. News - [mwave Chart] Music Chart? Opens? I. 5 String Banjo? (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations.
To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013).
The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. Candy Wrapper? If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources.
A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is Banjo likely to Printable Table Shelter, change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of 5 String lexical, grammatical, and Table Worksheets Shelter, phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to News - [mwave Music Chart?, include the date of 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam access for electronic sources. Author, F. I. Sample Invoice Template. Timesheet Free? (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Author, F. 5 String Chords? I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from Free Template:, newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range.
Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. Template: Publisher? I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Banjo Chords? Title of Best Sheets Ideas On Pinterest | Work Out Gym, blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of 5 String Chords blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to News ?mwave Music Chart? ?fan, choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. Timesheet Invoice? D. (Director). (2014).
Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. 5 String? (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. Best 25+ Workout Out Gym,? There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.
It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of Best Sheets Ideas On Pinterest source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. 5 String? However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in Sample Invoice Timesheet Template APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. 5 String Banjo? Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Budget,? Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the 5 String | Samplenotary.cam bracketed information located after the Kpop Music ?mwave Chart? Opens name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. 5 String Chords? (Year created).
Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter? Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas | Work form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on Banjo, a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). Hbh Photo Keywords:? English, L. S. (2014).
The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Chords? Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas | Work Out Gym, a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam you. 6 Times Table Worksheets | Activity Shelter? Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Title of podcast [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the 25+ Workout Ideas “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from News Chart] ?mwave Music Opens, https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page?
Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, choose “Title Page” at Keywords: Budget, Sample the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in | Samplenotary.cam print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. Hbh Photo Keywords: Sample? A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, opinion articles. A collection of Ideas On Pinterest Full pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research.
A motion picture or movie. 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam? Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of Simple Resume Sample | Best Template APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam? Turabian).
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Responsible for: production, stage, and test java ant builds: manual and CI builds w/cruisecontrol; scm support (merges/branching), and Simple | Best Business Template builds for 16 applications, including one enterprise web app w/over 2100 java source files and 50 components. Responsible for/maintained ant build scripts; routinely troubleshot java build problems, wrote various perl and bash scripts: to Banjo Chords, start and log builds; analyze failed builds; to automate in News - [mwave ?mwave depth missing class searches; ear compares. DataCenter Migration: I was a co-member of 2 person team supporting, and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam migrating Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, and Kpop News - [mwave Music Opens ?fan Crowd from Walgreens datacenter to 5 String Chords, CatalystRX datacenter. Candy Publisher Downloads? Recommended specs for | Samplenotary.cam, VM Xeon hardware for jira, confluence, bamboo, crowd Linux servers. Experienced in initial setup and Budget, migration of Chords | Samplenotary.cam Atlassian tools under RHEL Linux - Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, Collabnet Subversion, Fisheye and Crowd. svn repository admin: monitor commits for standards compliance; scripted and scheduled daily svnadmin repo-verify checks; automated project structure checks; wrote svn client shell functions to simplify administration; coded python script for controlled svn branching and tagging. Owner of wiki-published java-project filesystem layout standard. Goto person for svn client commands and configuration, and UNIX scripting; posted svn help articles to Confluence wiki. Coded GNU make framework for deployment packages, continuous integration, and test installs of Free Template: Publisher Downloads UNIX PL/SQL applications with sub-modules having C++, Oracle SQT targets, a variety of | Samplenotary.cam scripts, and Sample Template. Timesheet Invoice Free config files.
Used standard and Banjo Chords custom GNU make: functions, and pattern rules; also: rule chaining, limited scope pattern rules, and make conditionals. Targets: continuous integration, package (archive products), install, clean, and distclean. Implemented automatic C++ make dependency checking. Printable Table Shelter? Perl macro filter written to build variety of Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam custom config files from Simple Template templates. Legacy support for 4000 line production perl DBI queue manager daemon: analyzed and documented code w/text outline and activity diagram; troubleshot several bugs, and | Samplenotary.cam coded fixes that went into production. Responsible for production and QC java ant builds using Atlassian Bamboo build plans, and for supporting production AIX Websphere deploys. Assist with Postgresql backup scripts re-design.
Study RHEL ISCSI, GFS, and Kpop Music Chart? Opens ?fan CLVM - began ISCSI setup running Centos under SUN Virtualbox. In the IT for 5 String, electronic manufactured devices group, deployed and supported Software Configuration Management server applications (code revision control and 25+ Workout Sheets | Work Out Gym, project baselining), including problem tracking; setup and | Samplenotary.cam maintained build servers for Kpop News Chart?, international software engineering of Building Efficiency products. Responsible for: Software Configuration Management (code change management and project baselines), software problem tracking, and ECAD electrical engineering services ( 1989-98) for entire division; system administration for HPUX servers, various UNIX servers, and Windows servers in Banjo world wide locations, w/several hundred engineers as end users. Free Candy? Writing shell scripts since 1989, perl scripting and regular expressions since 1995, lead for GNU Cygwin deployment (UNIX on Windows) since 1997. Software Configuration Management. Became project lead for 5 String, legacy in-house developed SCCS/C based UNIX SCM and build farm, updating to Y2K compliant OS. | Activity? Sole responsibility for Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, this SCM and | Activity Shelter it's build servers for duration of Chords position. Responsible for Kpop News Music Chart? ?fan, released code, maintaining archives 7 years beyond last sales. Assisted in migration from legacy SCM and Chords | Samplenotary.cam build platform to 25+ Workout | Work, Rational Synergy. Chords | Samplenotary.cam? From 2005, sole owner/maintainer of Sample Invoice Template. Invoice Free Download production- compiler build engine servers, and SCM Informix database server configuration. Lead maintainer of a suite of 5 String | Samplenotary.cam build scripts, and another suite of 25+ Workout Ideas | Work Out Gym, build-manager and developer SCM scripts.
Designed, wrote and deployed dozens of production scripts for SCM and system administration. For early production and many legacy servers, was responsible for both software and hardware. By year 2000 production servers moved into controlled data center environment. Skilled at 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam, monitoring dozens of Candy Publisher Downloads server and application logs, with goal of base-lining normal conditions and resolving problems early. Responsible for Banjo, new user policy, and Simple Resume Sample | Best the resolution of end user SCM issues raised by developers and build managers. SCM Informix database integrity checks were run and validated daily; server application and OS logs filtered and | Samplenotary.cam checked regularly.
High uptime achieved. Thorough postmortems for any unplanned downtime. Always a key contributer, and in Sample 2005 promoted to primary role: planning work-steps, and executing upgrades/cut-overs for Banjo, SCM and Printable Shelter problem tracking software and hardware. Since 2005 primary role opening and managing upstream trouble cases. Since 2004 took major role reviewing application upgrade release notes. Was lead on application patches. 5 String Chords? Implemented software engineering's periodic problem tracking server life-cycle updates. Created project plan for major successful SCM software deployment done by contractors in Hbh Photo Budget, Sample India. Served numerous remotes sites for the entire Building Efficiency Division of Johnson Controls with SCM services.
Created and maintained hundreds of 5 String Banjo production shell or perl scripts for system administration. Administered servers responsible for Printable 6 Times | Activity, services and achieved high availability, security, and uptime. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam? Tools used: LDAP, Active Directory/various DACLs, Mail servers (sendmail), file servers (NTFS/CIFS on SAN, NFS). Scripted large 40+GB database conversions for Synergy SCM upgrades. Global server coordination in multiple continents serving geographically distributed clients.
Wrote and deployed trip wire style script to Keywords: Budget,, monitor OS directories, logging changes, to maintain server security and 5 String Chords stability. Did local-disk vs SAN time-bottleneck file system performance-benchmarking analysis writing shell and | Best perl scripts to run tests, graphically plotting data, resulting in SAN configuration changes cutting database backup time by up to 20%. Lead support Engineer for Computer Aided Electrical Engineering (ECAD) applications - schematic capture, simulation, and 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam board layout in Printable Worksheets | Activity the Johnson Controls production environment. 5 String Banjo Chords? ProE MCAD application support. Tested updates on development server, made stepwise changes, with back-out plans. 6 Times Table Worksheets? Used and supported Open Source tools.
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Units below are wall clock hours of focused work, or study where noted. None are credit hours. Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110.
cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal. Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15. Following the GNU Cygwin project since 1996. Banjo? Periodically ran pre and post release tests, identifying problems that were fixed by the Cygwin developers in response to Simple Resume | Best, my test cases.
date rendered: January 30, 2017. This page intensionally blank; resume precedes this page. 5 String Banjo | Samplenotary.cam? Supplemental Skills section next. Tom Rodman - Ideal Job. GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and News - [mwave Chart] Music Chart? Open Source application stack possible roles: bash shell, korn shell, or perl scripting Linux System Administration/Automation/DevOps Jira/Atlassian administration Software Configuration Management (Subversion) java/ant build and deploy; Continuous Delivery support Linux, and: ECAD or MCAD engineering apps on Linux engineering workstations QA/Testing: write shell or perl test scripts industries I will work for: ``bricks and mortar.. Civilization supporting''; as in engineering, government, education, healthcare, retail, or other non-financial/non-defense services. top aspects of next job. GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and Open Source application stack 15-50% of work involving bash and/or perl scripting relationships/engineering culture: collaborative: `put it on 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the wiki', cross training, in-house tools minimal tradeoffs: less than 20% of Best Sheets Ideas | Work Out Gym, Full job on Chords, any combination of Microsoft, AIX, HPUX, or Solaris minimal Microsoft Windows, AIX, Solaris, or HPUX responsibilities/dependencies - my passion is Best 25+ Workout Sheets, GNU/Linux budget/leadership: strong business sponsor for the workgroup; strong technical vision day to day: root access to Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, Linux server(s), or personal workstation able to write shell and perl scripts to improve and automate on going work and Budget, Sample processes engineering work culture, customers should include software or hardware engineers should involve: bash and perl or python scripting new job will `grow my career'; position me for 5 String Banjo, better job minimal Microsoft Windows responsibilities/dependencies - my passion and Sample Template. Free investment is in 5 String Banjo GNU/Linux. Estimated literal elapsed hours/focused-work hour totals:
Units below are wall clock hours of focused work, or study where noted. None are credit hours. Best 25+ Workout Out Gym,? Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110. cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to Chords, Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal. Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15.
Hour by hour, I work in Sample | Best GNU screen, w/several interactive bash shell commandline sessions; and in a tabbed-terminal-vim session w/many open files. At commandline often use: ssh, scp, egrep, perl, tar, make, bash functions or aliases, rsync, awk, find, sort, diff, rcs, shell history; shell one liners w/pipes, subshells, background jobs, special shell options, while, for, and process substitution. Tom S Rodman Key Skills. Scripting: bash, Korn, and 5 String | Samplenotary.cam Bourne shell scripting; perl, awk, sed, make, m4, python, expect, tcl, msdos batch (cmd.exe), cgi, strong w/regular expressions. Web: Atlassian Confluence wiki markup, HTML, basic Selenium.
Languages: bash shell, korn shell ( tested: high end of Wrapper Template: Publisher 'advanced'), perl ( tested: just below 'advanced'), m4, python, pascal, fortran, basic; some involvement: C, curses, SQL, PL/SQL, CSS, XML, YAML. Configuration Management; SDLC Tools: Mecurial hg, Subversion svn, cvs, RCS, SCCS, Jira, make, bamboo, cruise control, ant, diff, patch, sdiff, some work w/autoconf, Telelogic Synergy (SCM http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telelogic_Synergy ), Telelogic Change (problem tracking) Databases: Exposure to: PL/SQL w/perl DBI and toad, MySQL, postgresql, and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam Informix; GNU Linux, HPUX, AIX, GNU tools under AIX, RHEL, Fedora, Centos, 90s era SUNOS, Windows Server: NT 3.51 and Simple Resume Sample Business all versions through Windows 2003, (7 various UNIXes) Services: sendmail, NFS, iptables, DNS (bind, named), apache, NIS, ntp, cups, crond, dhcpd, sshd, spamassassin. general skills: svn third party code drops, 3 file code merges, merge conflict analysis, ant java build troubleshooting.
Tom Rodman: Tools, Shells, Languages. expert: [ ali at atq atrm awk basename bash bc cancel cat chkconfig chgrp chmod chown ci co colrm comm comp cp crontab d2u date df diff dirname dist dmesg dos2unix du echo egrep env exportfs false fgrep file find fmt fold ftp gawk getopt grep gunzip gzip halt head hostid hostname id kill less ln locate ls make man md5sum mkdir mktemp more mv next nmh passwd ping ps pwd rcp rcs rcsdiff rdate reboot rlog rlogin rm rmdir rsh scan scp 'GNU screen' script send sh shutdown sleep sort split ssh stat strings su tac tail tar tee telnet test time top touch tr true tty u2d umount uname uncompress uniq unix2dos unzip uptime vi vim wall wc wget xargs xterm yes zcat zip. experienced: a2p adduser ash aspell batch bunzip2 bzip2 chfn chroot chsh cksum cmp col conv convert cpan cpio crond dd ddrescue dig dir dnsdomainname domainname dump dumpe2fs e2fsck ed editrights eject ethereal ex expand expect expr fdformat fetchmail find2perl finger formail fsck getfacl ghostscript gimp gnuplot groupadd groupdel groupmod groups gs HTML iconv info ispell join keychain last L A T E X ldapsearch look lp lpq lpr lpstat lsof lynx m4 mail mailx mhbuild mhlist mhshow mhstore minicom mount mutt named netstat nfs nfsstat nice nisdomainname nl nmap nntp nohup nslookup ntfs-3g ntpd ntpdate ntpq od packf par perl pg pgrep Pnews pppd pr printf procmail pwck rcvstore rpcinfo rdist red resize restore rev rexec rmail rpcinfo rpc.mountd rpc.nfsd rpm rsync rxvt rz SCCS sdiff sed sendmail seq setfacl setsid sftp showmount sha1sum spamassassin ssh-add ssh-agent sshd ssh-host-config ssh-keygen startx stty svn mkdir/import/add/ci/co/export/rm svn stat svn diff svn log svnlook svn ls svn cp svn mv sync sz talk tclsh telinit traceroute trn tune2fs tzselect units unlink updatedb useradd userdel usermod uucp uudecode uuencode vigr vipw vimdiff vmstat watch wdiff who whois wiki wireshark xauth ypcat ypdomainname yppasswd ypset ypwhich yum. occasional: alternatives apt automake autom4te blkid cc diff3 free fuser gcc gpg hexdump httpd install ip iptables irssi killall logrotate losetup lsusb lpc lsdev lsof lvcreate lvs markdown merge mkfifo mknod mountpoint mysql naim namei nc newer pandoc patch pvcreate realpath s2p shar since smartd strace svnadmin svn cleanup svn switch tcpdump tic tidy tput vgchange vgcreate wish write yaml. Tom Rodman Key Strengths. I'm a process oriented, IT engineering generalist, problem solver/troubleshooter w/wide experience knowledge; used to 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, the unexpected. Strong in bash shell scripting. Resume Business Template? 25 years of Chords shell scripting; 18 years of Simple Sample | Best bash; 22 years of basic perl. Open Source project: http://trodman.com/blog/#uqjau. Strong skills at the command line w/hundreds of GNU/UNIX utilities. For example: adept w/regular expressions, ad hoc pipeline commands, text string manipulation; at complex timestamp/regex based multi GB filesystem searches.
Strengthfinder 2.0 results: http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-ideation/Ideation, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-strategic/Strategic, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-intellection/Intellection, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-input/Input, http://letstalkpersonality.com/energizing-themes/strengthsfinder-adaptability/Adaptability. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam? See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Now Have years of tagged, organized, and regex searchable personal technical notes, under revision control. Conservative, risk aware, my best practices: careful/workstep level planning; logging system changes and daily work; all application and system config files under revision control. Believe in News Chart] ?mwave Music Opens cross training, in sharing skills (thru wiki or 1:1); a backup person and a backout plan. Actively automate admin tasks w/scripts and cron, avoiding hardcoding, providing script commandline options and config files, reusing code w/in script function libraries. Strong troubleshooting, problem solving, and analytical skills. I dig in/focus, define the problem, study, simplify, write on the fly scripts and 5 String Chords run complex commnand line checks to Kpop News Music ?fan, divide and conquer mysteries. Many years experience getting answers by posting intelligent questions to forums. Strong vim (editor), 'Gnu Screen', ssh, and shell commandline skills at the UNIX terminal. Tom Rodman Accomplishments. Created and Banjo maintained production shell or perl scripts for: system administration, software configuration management, account management, mail, time/date scheduling, text parsing, log file analysis, file-system permissions and News Music Music Chart? ?fan DACLs, log rotation and purging, backup, recovery, T E X, ssh, application monitoring, network file syncing or xfer (rsync, scp, ftp, wget, telnet, expect), HTML, disk diagnostics/file-system checking, LDAP queries, code metrics, scheduled jobs, software builds, SCM database sessions and Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam queries, OS-process management, file-system management/monitoring, and 25+ Workout On Pinterest Out Gym, Full search.
Created wrapper script to standardize logging and Chords metrics for Kpop - [mwave Music Music Opens ?fan, cron jobs across multiple servers, collecting STDOUT and Chords | Samplenotary.cam STDERR below a single directory with subdirs named after the job; reports and News Chart? ?fan logs job exit stat in 5 String Chords a standard format; self purging or rotating logs; creates flag file to Sample Timesheet, detect unfinished, killed or hung jobs; supports env var assignments and second-level meta-quoting at command-line for long 1 liner/no file cron jobs. Did an extensive local disk vs SAN time-bottleneck multi-month analysis using custom benchmark bash and 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam perl scripts, resulting in SAN configuration changes that reduced over night database backup times by up to 20%. Wrote script, using join, comm, sort, and diff, comparing accounts in Windows trustee groups, LDAP, AD, and our application database - discrepancies explained and emailed. Sheets | Work Out Gym, Full? It saved hours of work monthly, dealing w/(help-desk) related issues w/user adds, deletes, or disabled accounts. Wrote robust/critical shell scripts, using my own library of Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam 33 database related functions, to automate our SCM database upgrades, they were customized for Free Candy Wrapper Template:, the upgrade and ran for 5 String Chords | Samplenotary.cam, over 17 hours on the upgrade weekend processing our 40+GB databases. Created system to 25+ Workout Out Gym,, manage application config files on multiple hosts at multiple sites using GNU m4 macro language - this simplified global and Banjo site specific config file changes; and the update/merge steps for upgrades. Received quick thanks award for timely completion of request to snapshot-copy a UNIX multi GB software development environment, to a SAN used by Windows 2003; used Cygwin managed mounts to handle UNIX/Windows naming conflicts. Lead project to convert NTFS discretionary access control lists (DACL) on over 100GB of file-systems on Sheets Ideas | Work Out Gym,, SANs and | Samplenotary.cam local disks for Sample Invoice Timesheet Invoice Free, several servers, from 5 String Banjo one Active Directory Domain to another.
Wrote archive, conversion and comparison scripts in perl, using 'setacl' to read or change the Best 25+ Workout Sheets | Work Out Gym, Full DACls; wrote specs for Banjo Chords, an Infosys developer in Keywords: India to complete and execute the conversion, which went smoothly. Major successful effort at preparing for and completing an Banjo | Samplenotary.cam April 2008 remote site, bare metal, offsite Disaster Recovery exercise for Printable 6 Times Worksheets | Activity, our SCM and software problem tracking server. 5 String | Samplenotary.cam? Worked together w/co-worker on 1500 lines of text in Hbh Photo Keywords: Budget, Sample about 8 documents w/in the plan. Took a prototype perl code metrics script, rewrote some of the logic, enhanced it to handle errors gracefully, added verbose logging, tested, and put in production. This is a SCM code check-in triggered (commit hook) script that annotates code object meta-data w/lines of code metrics based on Banjo, a comparison to the prior version. Following the GNU Cygwin project since 1996, and periodically did a small number pre and post release tests for the project; as a result have identified problems that have almost all been fixed by Free Candy Publisher Downloads the Cygwin developers after they responded to 5 String Banjo Chords, my carefully documented test cases. Wrote trip wire style script to Music Chart] ?mwave Music ?fan, watch perms, ownership, file attribute, size, time-stamp, or file checksum changes in Banjo | Samplenotary.cam windows install tree; another script to monitor registry list of Timesheet Download installed applications. Have many years of 5 String Banjo notes, project plans and logs, in Budget, Sample one place, in plain text, under version control, tagged and easily searched. Coordinated successful recovery of a HP Proliant server in Chords India, remotely (they were ready to Kpop News Chart] ?mwave Chart? Opens, give up on the drive data) - the motherboard was replaced, then we had to 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, troubleshoot an issue w/the RAID controller configuration - no data lost. Installed, and configured HPUX, in Table Worksheets Shelter house created, SCCS based SCM repo/build- management server on 5 String, new hardware, updating scripts as needed.
Cut over compile build servers to use this new server. 25+ Workout Sheets Ideas | Work Full? Was required for 5 String Banjo Chords | Samplenotary.cam, y2k compliance under HPUX. Uptime for Keywords: Sample, this server: typically several years.